Level measurement, which is the detection of the phase split between vapor/liquid, liquid/liquid, vapor/solid and even liquid/solid, is a key parameter in the operation and control of modern industrial processes. A reliable outcome depends on the phase conditions being relatively consistent under all process conditions. Unfortunately, the importance of level control isn’t always understood. Failure to measure level reliably has resulted in some of the most serious industrial accidents, including those at the Buncefield, U.K., fuel storage depot and BP’s Texas City refinery. In this Chemical Processing Level Management eHandbook, we discuss best practices for level management including:
How to Select the Right Liquid Level Sensor - It’s important to consider a variety of factors when choosing the type of technology
Properly Measure Liquid/Liquid Interfaces - Follow a simple rule for location of level gauge nozzles
Improve Reactor Vessel Measurement - Non-contact radar level meter speeds production and boosts worker safety
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Process Level Management eHandbook now.
Operating and maintaining a reliable steam system is vital to chemical processing plants and can have significant cost impact on a plant's annual budget. Typical profit drainers in operating and maintaining a steam system include excessive fuel cost, inefficient steam generation, less-than-optimal steam utlization and poor condensate recovery. Ensuring adequate supply of steam often results in excessive capacity usage, expensive fuel choices or condensate draining to grade, leading to compromised efficiency levels and higher steam cost. Because steam systems dependency is unavoidalbe, addressing those three issues is crucial to minimizing steam costs.
This Chemical Processing Steam eHandbook presents an overview, steam technologies and strategies for reducing cost associated with using and generating steam including:
Learn how to generate savings through steam use and generation. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Steam eHandbook now.Read The EHandbook Now
Rising fuel costs have a direct impact on a chemical processors’ bottom line. How can chemical processors reduce their energy consumption thus reducing their cost to produce? It’s believed that the chemical industry potentially can vastly decrease energy use AND greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the help of game-changing technology and strong support from policymakers. In this Chemical Processing Energy eHandbook, we take a look at global, and more local, technologies and strategies for improving energy efficiency at chemical plants including:
Spikes in energy costs or unplanned-for capital improvement expenses can put organizations in tricky financial situations. To solve them, they often select the option with the lowest upfront cost which leads to the “pay me now or pay me later” dilemma. Over time it’s discovered that these lower-priced alternatives cost much more due to higher failure rates, wasted energy and more intensive maintenance. This Chemical Processing Steam eHandbook presents steam technologies and strategies for reducing cost associated with using and generating steam including:Read the eHandbook Now
Effective energy management can help achieve more efficient use of energy without reducing production levels, product quality or employee morale, and without compromising safety and environmental standards. It should not only address higher efficiency generation, energy conversion, distribution and utilization, but also explore lower-cost energy alternatives. Simply put, energy management is optimizing the energy cost per unit of product output. In this Chemical Processing Energy Efficiency eHandbook, we take a look at how to achieve effective energy management including: • Energy management programs – the roles and responsibilities needed to create an effective energy management program • Internal and external resources needed for an effective energy management program including what to expect from top management • Energy management basics – the five key activities to help reduce energy use • Compression dryers – a review of three alternatives: heat, desiccant and refrigerant. Understanding whether the purchase “cost” outweighs the “value” in terms of energy consumption and production levels.Read the eHandbook now
In addition to flow pressure, volume and material state, achieving and maintaining desired flow performance depends upon properly addressing some complicated design and operational issues. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we identify strategies and solutions for aerodynamic, technical, mechanical and economic constraints including:
Hydrogen systems – Inspections and tests for ensuring safety and flow
Axial compressors – achieving and maintaining desired performance
Fight flow recirculation – why the phenomenon occurs in centrifugal pumps and how to correct it
Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.
Corrosion, leak detection and mitigation, flow pressure and volume are all factors that maintenance managers and other decision makers need to contend with as they manage flow at their chemical processing plants. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we delve in to solutions and strategies for managing these challenges including:
Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.
Chemical processors continually strive to find technologies and solutions for improving flow. Issues related to physical properties, process parameters, electronic features and interconnections can all affect the flow of liquids and gases. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we take a look at what it take a look at several different flow challenges and considerations to overcome these challenges including:
Find out how to master flow challenges. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.
Issues related to physical properties, process parameters, electronic features and interconnections can all affect the flow of liquids and gases. Often working around the clock to process, transfer, and store sometimes hazardous and corrosive chemicals, processors must tackle issues related to physical properties and process parameters. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we take a look at what it takes for chemical processors to master flow challenges for several types of materials with vastly different physical properties including:
Chemical processors continually strive to find technologies and solutions for improving system performance and plant uptime. Often working around the clock to process, transfer, and store sometimes hazardous and corrosive chemicals, processors must tackle issues related to physical properties and process parameters. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we take a look at what it takes for chemical processors to achieve effective flow management.Read the eHandbook now
Issues related to physical properties, process parameters, electronic features and interconnections can all affect the flow of liquids and gases. Chemical Processors know that many factors such as flow rate, material temperature and liquid viscosity can effect how easily, or difficult it is to process flow. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at technologies and strategies for managing flow including: Properly positioning interlock valves - the obvious location may not be the most cost effective How to pick the proper centrifugal pump - the impact of startup conditions and prospective operating points Five important factors for storage tanks and how to determine the right tank for your needs Variable area meters – factors to consider when selecting this device for measuring flow Coriolis flow meters – understand how a straight-tube design provides several advantages for a varnish production application Understand the many facets of flow. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.Read The eHandbook Now
The purpose of installing a flowmeter system is to accurately measure flow in a reliable manner. Issues related to physical properties, process parameters, electronic features and interconnections are often given much consideration. Relatively little emphasis, however, is given as to how well the flowmeter will perform its intended purpose. Adding to the confusion are the differences in how performance is expressed and the incomplete nature of the available information. Nevertheless, the quality of flow measurement should be a concern. This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at technologies and solutions affecting flow including: * Coriolis meters - steps you can take optimize performance when faced with entrained gas * Magmeters -- why you should consider using them * How to achieve effective flow control with centrifugal pumpsRead the eHandbook now
The purpose of installing a flowmeter system is to accurately measure flow in a reliable manner. Issues related to physical properties, process parameters, electronic features, interconnections can all affect the flowmeter performance. This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at technologies and solutions affecting flow as well as the impact of specific regulations on flowmeter systems including:
Powders developed to meet certain product performance targets often suffer from inconsistent and unpredictable flow. The reasons for this are many. A material's characteristics - adhesiveness, cohesiveness, aeratability, pressure-sensitivity - often change during processing and can cause flow problems to crop up. Couple this with changes in the processes themselves and costly downtime can be the result. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for overcoming powder processing challenges including:
Make the most of your powder processes. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
A material’s characteristics and how they may change during processing can affect HOW these materials are processed. Key factors affecting powders include aeration, moisture absorption, electrostatic charging to name a few. Many bulk solids are sensitive to heat and humidity. As these levels rise, either in the feeder system or via outside conditions, flow problems crop up. As the powder gains strength, jams and poor flow conditions begin to appear. Costly downtime and a loss of product are incurred while a search is made for a solution to the flow problems. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key factors affecting powders and today’s best practices for overcoming the processing of powders including:
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
The mechanisms of powder flow are complex. They are influenced by an array of different parameters; some relate to the particles’ physical attributes, such as size and shape, and others, such as humidity, to the system itself. Although there is a general understanding of these individual mechanisms, the multitude of interactions that govern the specific behavior of a given powder can many and in turn, affect how these powders are processed. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at technologies and strategies for handling powdersRead the eHandbook Now
Powders and the dust they create have a tendency to create a myriad of material handling headaches. For example, dust can wreak havoc on the performance and accuracy of many level sensors, rendering them inaccurate and unreliable. Powder particles under the influence of gravity can become compacted resulting in inter-particle friction that may prevent flow movement. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we offer a few tips for optimizing powder processing.Read The eHandbook Now
Some chemical makers are missing opportunities to reduce operating costs and increase profits because they aren’t striving to re-engineer and streamline their processes. A plant often can achieve substantial benefits through simplified steps that do more and work better with less complexity. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for optimizing powder processing including: • Streamlining the chemical processing process – enhancing operations by removing complexities that creep in over time • Suppression systems – How a properly designed and engineered suppression system offers many advantages including explosion aversion • Mitigating the impact of uncertainty - how the correct weighing system and a proper maintenance schedule can ensure accuracy Learn strategies for optimizing your powder processing. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.Read The eHandbook Now
Processing powders can be tricky. During processing, powder properties can be affected by many different factors including if the materials are stored for long periods, if the materials are exposed to moisture, and by fluctuations in the mechanical processes that handle powders. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at technologies and strategies for handling powders including: Options for large drivers – with a focus on variable-speed electric motors Innovative level measurement technologies How shear cell instruments and relative humidity tests can determine a powders flow behavior Indoor flameless venting – how modern technology can help eliminate the risk of damage and reduce maintenance costs Learn how to process powders with ease. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.Read The eHandbook Now
One of the trickiest materials to process, powders are comprised of solids or particulates, a continuous gaseous phase (usually air) and, almost always, a liquid component. Many factors influence powder composition including size and distribution, surface roughness and hardness. And, how powders are processed -- vibration, compaction, attrition, segregation -- can influence how powders react. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at how to effectively handle powders, safer dryer operations and how to manage phase changes when processing powders. Download your copy today. Download your copy today.Read the eHandbook now
One of the trickiest materials to process, solids are comprised of powders or particulates, a continuous gaseous phase (usually air) and, almost always, a liquid component. Processors that handle solids know only too well the types of throughput problems that come up on a recurring basis. Clumping; effective, economical and safe slurry mixing; dust management and dust explosion risk mitigation are all very real challenges faced by processors of solids. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at how to effectively handle solids including:
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
Read the eHandbook now
One of the trickiest materials to process, solids are comprised of powders or particulates, a continuous gaseous phase (usually air) and, almost always, a liquid component. Processors that handle solids know only too well the types of throughput problems that come up on a recurring basis. Effective, economical and safe slurry management; flowability during processing, accurate inventory and volume level management are all very real challenges faced by processors of solids. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at how to effectively handle solids including:
As many chemical processors know, processing powders can be tricky. Powder properties can be affected if the materials are stored for long periods. Powders can be compressed, vibrated, aerated and exposed to moisture. And specific processes like granulation, blending, drying, milling, lubricating and compression put requirements on how powders can be handled. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at how to effectively process powder including:
Reliability programs are now standard business practice in companies that rely heavily on machines, equipment and other physical assets. But, in today’s lean economy, companies have fewer resources than ever to manage and maintain these assets. Plants face challenges in identifying new and cost-effective ways to ensure their assets are performing and that they are managing to minimize operational risks. In this Chemical Processing Reliability/Asset Management eHandbook we take a look at proactive approaches for improving reliability and maintenance in today’s processing plant.Read The eHandbook Now
Major accidents with multiple fatalities continue to occur worldwide in theprocess industries, causing distress to those involved and massive costs to companies. Almost daily, facilities in the process industries face a number of specific major accident hazard scenarios depending upon the nature of the substances they handle and their processing activities. These are caused by known initiating events such as failure of hardware or control systems, or errors by operating or maintenance staff. In this Chemical Processing Process Safety eHandbook, we provide tips for safer processing.Read The eHandbook now
In the decade before Stuxnet attacked process control systems in Iran, there were just five known supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) vulnerabilities for all control systems in the world, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT). In 2011, the year after Stuxnet, that vulnerability count jumped to more than 215. Last year, it reached 248 (Figure 1). No surprise then that Chemical makers are increasingly focusing on protecting their process control systems from intrusion both from the inside and outside. In this Chemical Processing Special Report: Secure plan(t), we take a look at:
For chemical processors, changing process conditions demand quick responses in order to keep processing effective and to keep processes running properly. For processes undergoing such changes, accurate and timely measurements, such as vibration monitoring, redundant tank level measurement and steam header temperature profiling can be difficult to collect. In well-established plants it’s both very expensive and time consuming to get measurement points online using conventional wired instrumentation. Many processors are now turning to wireless devices that can supply data from numerous points that never could have been justified otherwise. In this Chemical Processing Wireless eHandbook we take a look at wireless technology solution successes.Read The eHandbook Now
Treating and reusing process water is a multidimensional challenge for process plants. Compliance with regulatory requirements to prevent and mitigate industrial pollution can require significant capital investment as well as ongoing maintenance outlays. The increasing scarcity and cost of fresh water for production processes also compounds the problem. In this Chemical Processing Wastewater eHandbook we take a look at how to widen your perspective on wastewater including:
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Water Wastewater eHandbook now.Read The EHandbook Now
Chemical facilities are under mounting pressure to process ever larger quantities of wastewater to increasingly higher standards while staying within a variety of cost constraints. Plant operators face the dilemma of how to maintain treatment throughput at reasonable cost even when the plant reaches design capacity. Potential changes to production mixes can compound the challenge. Fortunately, adopting the latest wastewater-treatment technology can inject new life into a plant, extending useful asset life without heavy upfront capital investment. In this Chemical Processing Wastewater eHandbook we take a look at how to boost wastewater improvement efforts including:
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Wastewater eHandbook now.Read The EHandbook Now
Chemical makers increasingly are focusing on water-related issues. In particular, concern over availability is spurring leading operating companies to implement a host of novel strategies and technologies to optimize water use. Chemical makers are implementing strategies and solutions to scale back on their overall usage of water, reuse water and put clean water back in to circulation. In this ChemicalProcessing Water Optimization eHandbook we take a look at how chemical companies are dealing with water challenges
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Water Optimization eHandbook now.
For chemical processors, the use of water in their processing can correlate to significant costs. Cost, coupled with an increasing focus on the environmental impact of both water usage and wastewater creation, are challenging processors to take a closer look at both their consumption of water and production of wastewater. Wide-ranging water optimization efforts, from fixing pipe leaks to minimizing cooling tower blowdown, are providing significant savings to chemical makers, but there’s more. In this ChemicalProcessing Water/Wastewate eHandbook we take a look at how to deal with water challenges.Read The eHandbook Now