Microwave energy in chemical processing has really come of age over the past few years. Many companies are experiencing the benefits that microwave offers over conventional drying technologies. Other functions include: sterilization, pasteurization, cooking, tempering, dehydration and heating. While you may have guessed a few of the applications we’re profiling, or may even work with them yourself, we hope at least one or two applications off our list will catch your eye and perhaps start you thinking. • Analytical Chemistry • Treatment of Biomass & Biosolids • Powder Processing Carbon Black Animal Blood Plasma Powdered Eggs • Pyrolysis for Recycling & Waste-to-Energy Plastics and Rubber Farm Waste • Petro Chemicals Frac Sand Grease Processing • Minerals06/18/2013
Powders and the dust they create have a tendency to create a myriad of material handling headaches. For example, dust can wreak havoc on the performance and accuracy of many level sensors, rendering them inaccurate and unreliable. Powder particles under the influence of gravity can become compacted resulting in inter-particle friction that may prevent flow movement. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we offer a few tips for optimizing powder processing.08/12/2013
The mechanisms of powder flow are complex. They are influenced by an array of different parameters; some relate to the particles’ physical attributes, such as size and shape, and others, such as humidity, to the system itself. Although there is a general understanding of these individual mechanisms, the multitude of interactions that govern the specific behavior of a given powder can many and in turn, affect how these powders are processed. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at technologies and strategies for handling powders including:
- How to Optimize Humidity for Efficient Powder Handling - too much or too little moisture can cause problems during processing and storage
- How to Select the Right Conveying and Feeding System - successful bulk handling of calcium carbonate depends on a variety of factors
- Suppressing Explosions for Process Protection - A properly designed and engineered suppression system offers many advantages
The unfortunate propensity of dust explosions to destroy entire facilities and claim lives is very real. Powder handling processes often are comprised of interconnected enclosures and equipment. Flame and pressure resulting from a dust explosion can therefore propagate through piping, across galleries, and reach other pieces of equipment or enclosures, leading to extensive damage. In this Chemical Processing Special Report, we take a look at the latest NFPA standards and dust explosion mitigation strategies. This Special Report covers:
- Significant revisions to dust explosion standards – NFPA 654 major changes include new administrative requirements
- How to defuse dust dangers - carefully consider and then counter risks of fire and explosion
- Five common dust explosion misconceptions that can lead to a false sense of security
Prepare your facility against potential dust explosion dangers. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Special Report now.12/17/2013
Combustible dust explosions are a risk in many areas of a chemical plant. Are you in compliance? This white paper reviews the OSHA NEP for combustible dust, NFPA standards on explosion hazards, equipment used for explosion protection, and how to avoid the most common shortfalls to compliance.01/27/2014
A material’s characteristics and how they may change during processing can affect HOW these materials are processed. Key factors affecting powders include aeration, moisture absorption, electrostatic charging to name a few. Many bulk solids are sensitive to heat and humidity. As these levels rise, either in the feeder system or via outside conditions, flow problems crop up. As the powder gains strength, jams and poor flow conditions begin to appear. Costly downtime and a loss of product are incurred while a search is made for a solution to the flow problems. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key factors affecting powders and today’s best practices for overcoming the processing of powders including:
- Looking beyond the physical properties of particles and treating powder as a bulk entity
- How scanners take volume to a new level - acoustics-based sensors can help accurately measure the volume of powders in vessels
- How to determine a coating’s volatile content - advancements in rapid loss-on-drying techniques significantly reduce testing time
- Testing powder flow - advances in test methods help better predict flow behavior at elevated temperature and humidity levels
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.02/19/2014
Download the white paper to receive information on maximizing the performance of your gravimetric feeder. You will receive tips on how to choose and set up the right feeder for the specific material being fed in your process. Handling free flowing, adhesive, cohesive, aeratable, hygroscopic and pressure sensitive materials plus ways on where and how to properly install a gravimetric feeder are discussed.03/18/2014
Powders developed to meet certain product performance targets often suffer from inconsistent and unpredictable flow. The reasons for this are many. A material's characteristics - adhesiveness, cohesiveness, aeratability, pressure-sensitivity - often change during processing and can cause flow problems to crop up. Couple this with changes in the processes themselves and costly downtime can be the result. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for overcoming powder processing challenges including:
- Making the most of flow additives - understand their impact on overall powder behavior to optimize flow
- Improving performance of gravimetric feeders - tips to avoid poor accuracy and frequent downtime
- Protecting against combustible dust explosion - economical approaches for protecting spray dryer processes and solutions
Make the most of your powder processes. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
When designing a system to transport powders and granules there is a wide variety of considerations. Different applications, installation environments, equipment, material characteristics and how they may change during the process are all part of the equation. While many plants aim to keep costs low and often times use old equipment for a new project this can also further compound a complex challenge. And that's not even taking in to consideration our increased awareness of the risks of an explosion and the need to avoid hazardous emissions. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key considerations affecting today’s best practices for transporting and processing powders and granules including:
- Installing pneumatic conveyors correctly - 10 steps to prevent a variety of common problems
- How to understand accuracy in a bin level monitoring system
- Tubular drag conveying - an alternative to pneumatic conveying
- Vacuum Conveying equipment and the issues of safety, security and sanitation
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.08/13/2014
Research Paper: Investigating the Relationship between Gypsum Purity and Hydrogen Sulfide Production under Anaerobic Conditions
Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) more commonly known as gypsum is a naturally occurring white crystalline mineral that has many different uses and applications. Gypsum in its hydrated form (CaSO4•2H2O) is used in the construction industry for fire resistance in buildings. Outside of the construction industry, gypsum is used in the food and fertilizer industry for calcium and sulfate fortification respectively. When gypsum is no longer usable, it is deposited in construction and demolition(C&D) landfills where anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions and the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria promote the decomposition of wallboard/gypsum into hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Due to local and state regulations on odor control, these C&D sites monitor their fill for hydrogen sulfide gas. This paper will couple two methods of analysis to observe the relationship between the purity of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) and hydrogen sulfide concentration as a sample is fermented by sulfate-reducing agents (e.g. bacteria). The scope of this research may be beneficial for industrial hygienists concerned with C&D landfill H2S levels or for incoming gypsum processing plants who suspect poor quality gypsum.09/12/2014
Process design and process safety are critical considerations in chemical production and processing. With design and safety paramount at the outset of any new development or equipment retrofit, firms can minimize risk exposure, maximize productivity and position themselves to remain compliant and competitive. Whether retrofit or new, chemical processing is continually challenged by combustible dust. Combustible dust can pose a hidden hazard when accumulation occurs in unseen locations such as in mechanical spaces, above false ceiling, ventilation systems and dust collection systems. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for mitigating combustible dust hazards including:
- Identifying hidden hazards - a case study outlining how a facility finds danger from accumulated dust and effectively addresses it
- Powder flowability - how new measurement methods now make it easier to evaluate flow
- Process safety - properly designed weigh model can optimize safety and improve efficiency
- A multivariate approach to powder processing - an overview of several methods that can help determine which powder properties have the greatest influence on performance
Learn how to preclude powder problems. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.11/11/2014
In chemical production and processing, process design and process safety are crucial considerations – especially when powders are part of production and processing. Inherent challenges such as increasing throughput, accurately measuring powders to manage inventory and removing excess solvents are all challenges that chemical processors need to contend with. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at these powder processing challenges and identify solutions and strategies to overcome them. Learn more about:
- Vacuum conveying - customization, automation and safety
- Matching level measurement system to a job - consider materials and work environment when choosing a device
- Removing solvent vapors in diverse applications - dry and liquid ring vacuum pumps are alternatives to oil-sealed pumps
- Meeting combustible dust compliance – how a facility tackles combustible dust with aportable central vacuum system
Pneumatic conveying is an effective form of moving dry materials. However, the long lengths of conveying pipe present a challenge when it comes to addressing cleanliness and sanitation.
While the closed nature of pneumatic conveying systems protects material from outside contamination, like debris, insects, etc., it is difficult to identify and protect against internal forms of contamination, such as buildup, microbial growth, etc. A plant HACCP or sanitation plan that does not address thousands of feet of pipe and dozens of elbows is incomplete and at risk for a recall.03/24/2015
A material’s characteristics – adhesiveness, cohesiveness, aeratibility, pressure-sensitivity – often change during processing and can cause both flow and hidden hazard challenges. And while poor flow is one of the most common problems encountered in handling or storing solids, dust control issues also need to be identified and addressed. This includes combustible dust as the repercussions can result in costly downtown and in some instances, explosions, serious injury and possibly even death. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for taming pesky powder processing challenges including:
- Defuse Dust Dangers - Carefully consider and then counter risks of fire and explosion
- Clamp Down On Clumping - First understand what’s really causing the problem
- What You Don’t Know About Powder Flow - Shear cells can quickly reveal information about flow behavior
- Know Your Vacuum Pumps - Understand the differences between liquid ring and rotary screw dry pumps for distillation
Learn how to tame your pesky powder challenges. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.05/27/2015
For chemical processors, ensuring a long-lasting, high-quality mix is a huge challenge regardless of the physical properties of the mixing component – liquid, gas, solid. In this Chemical Processing Mixing eHandbook, we take a look at mixing technologies including “open” batch operation, static mixers, hydrogenation and inline mixing. Understanding how each of these technologies works, the benefits and challenges can help you to avoid common mixing mix-ups. Download your copy and learn about:
- A number of technologies that can handle pipeline mixing
- How hydrogenation reactions can achieve greater conversion rates and thus better space/time yields
- Continuous powder wetting
- Inline mixing systems
- Modern in-line mixers
Avoid common mixing mix-ups. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Mixing eHandbook now.08/26/2015
Getting a better handle on Solids Process is an on-going challenge for chemical processors. Are you struggling with multiphase sampling? Do you want to conquer pilot plant challenges? Do you want to learn more about how automatic sampling can help control process safely?
This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting these challenges head on. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:
- Don’t Be Fazed By Multiphase Sampling: An isokinetic system can provide accurate samples;
- Conquer Pilot Plant Challenges: Use design of experiments to minimize the number of runs and ensure meaningful data;
- Case Study: Sampler Helps Control Process Safely: Automatic samplers can be key to ensuring process samples are repeatable and reliable;
Are you looking for more information about solids processing operations? The practice of chemical engineering underpins chemical processing. Universities teach design methods for unit operations such as distillation and heat transfer. However, colleges seldom cover solids processing operations. If any discussion takes place, it only focuses on basic particle physics issues related to drag and turbulence. Yet, many processes require extensive handling of solids.
This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting the challenges of solids processing head on. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:
• Solve Solids Processing Conundrums: Understand more about the unique issues posed by solids and why it is crucial for success.
• Measure Viscosity to Improve Your Mixing Process: Get tips on how to select the proper measuring instrument to better monitor your product quality.
• Make Some Sense of Sensors: Learn more about the variety of solutions that exist for flow level detection and inventory management.
• Consider Used Equipment: Get some guidelines to help you select the right pre-owned machine for an application.
Wet scrubbers and dry media dust collectors are two very different technologies used to capture dusts generated during production processes. Both types have inherent advantages and disadvantages. Which is best for your application? The choice is not always clear-cut, but this white paper will help with the decision process by providing a comparison between wet and dry dust collectors. It will outline general parameters for equipment selection with respect to dust properties including combustibility, explosibility, particle size, moisture and adhesiveness. It will also discuss how to apply NFPA 484: Standard for Combustible Metals, the standard that best addresses wet collection. Though NFPA 484 is specific to metals, some of its content can and should apply to nonmetal combustible dusts.04/28/2016
Are you looking for more information about handling powders?
Do you want to prevent problems before they start and consider alternative methods?
This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting the challenges of handling powders. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:
- Prevent Problems with Fine Particles: Sampling is crucial and demands particular care.
- Don’t Err About Fluidization: Consider its under-appreciated advantages and broader utility.
- Get the Most Out of Your Sterilization Process: Take a close look at two commonly used methods and their associated vacuum technology.
Combustible dust explosions are a known hazard in chemical processing,and metal dusts pose a unique danger. Learn why this concern is growing in urgency and the steps industry regulators and technology leaders are taking to improve risk mitigation. Download the whitepaper now.06/28/2016