For chemical processors, ensuring a long-lasting, high-quality mix is a huge challenge regardless of the physical properties of the mixing component – liquid, gas, solid. In this Chemical Processing Mixing eHandbook, we take a look at mixing technologies including “open” batch operation, static mixers, hydrogenation and inline mixing. Understanding how each of these technologies works, the benefits and challenges can help you to avoid common mixing mix-ups. Download your copy and learn about:
- A number of technologies that can handle pipeline mixing
- How hydrogenation reactions can achieve greater conversion rates and thus better space/time yields
- Continuous powder wetting
- Inline mixing systems
- Modern in-line mixers
Avoid common mixing mix-ups. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Mixing eHandbook now.08/26/2015
This 26-page white paper from Monitor Technologies discusses the difficulties in measuring bulk solids and powders in bins, silos and hoppers. Download this document to learn which technologies are out there that can make this job easier.01/03/2005
Research Paper: Investigating the Relationship between Gypsum Purity and Hydrogen Sulfide Production under Anaerobic Conditions
Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) more commonly known as gypsum is a naturally occurring white crystalline mineral that has many different uses and applications. Gypsum in its hydrated form (CaSO4•2H2O) is used in the construction industry for fire resistance in buildings. Outside of the construction industry, gypsum is used in the food and fertilizer industry for calcium and sulfate fortification respectively. When gypsum is no longer usable, it is deposited in construction and demolition(C&D) landfills where anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions and the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria promote the decomposition of wallboard/gypsum into hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Due to local and state regulations on odor control, these C&D sites monitor their fill for hydrogen sulfide gas. This paper will couple two methods of analysis to observe the relationship between the purity of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) and hydrogen sulfide concentration as a sample is fermented by sulfate-reducing agents (e.g. bacteria). The scope of this research may be beneficial for industrial hygienists concerned with C&D landfill H2S levels or for incoming gypsum processing plants who suspect poor quality gypsum.09/12/2014
Efficient transfer of weighing process data to higher level PLC, MES or ERP systems makes manufacturing processes more efficient and more transparent. But identifying and implementing the most effective system for data transfer and integration can be challenging.02/12/2013
This application note describes two technology solutionscontinuous weight information using loadcell systems or level information using ultrasonic systemsto the problems faced by day bins supplying downstream operations.05/22/2006
Specifying a hygienic bulk solids feeder is not a simple task. The wide variety of requirements needed for specific applications are similar in scope to explosion proof environmental requirement variations.06/06/2005
The collection and testing of dust samples is a long-established practice used by many powder and bulk processors to make informed dust collection decisions. Dust testing protocols have not changed markedly in recent years. The importance of dust testing, however, has changed, and the implications are significant. While knowing your dust has always been good practice, it is rapidly becoming a necessity in today's regulatory climate.
This article will review two separate types of testing: (1) explosibility testing, which is used to determine whether a dust is combustible; and (2) bench testing, which pinpoints numerous physical properties of the dust. Both categories of tests are needed to determine the best dust collection system for your application and whether explosion venting equipment must be part of that system.03/16/2010
Combustible dust explosions are a risk in many areas, but one of the most common locations is the dust collector. This white paper reviews OSHA and NFPA standards, how to identify hazards, and the types of equipment used for explosion protection. It also examines common shortfalls to compliance.09/25/2012
This 16-page PDF white paper addresses the design of reliable feeders in your bulk material handling system.09/01/2005
A large number of analytical and highly empirical correlations including monograms reflecting changing standards have been or are being proposed separately for gas and dust explosion relief venting. This white paper provides a generalized formula that is applicable to both gas and dust deflagrations including subsonic and sonic pressure relief conditions and is consistent with available experimental data and industry experience. Application of the model is illustrated for dust explosions. Download now.05/06/2011
Combustible dust fires happen in plants everyday. This white paper helps manufacturers learn more about combustible dust hazards and ways to handle combustible dust in your manufacturing plant in order to comply with OSHA's NEP. Learn more about choosing the right cleaning tools for your facility.07/25/2012
Fine powders present problems that bulk solids do not when they are contained in a bin, hopper or processing vessel. The primary problem is the powder's flow pattern. This 10-page PDF whitepaper discusses solutions to this problem.03/01/2005
This short two-page PDF whitepaper first discusses how an arch develops within a hopper and then disusses strategies for effectively removing them.01/31/2005
A material’s characteristics – adhesiveness, cohesiveness, aeratibility, pressure-sensitivity – often change during processing and can cause both flow and hidden hazard challenges. And while poor flow is one of the most common problems encountered in handling or storing solids, dust control issues also need to be identified and addressed. This includes combustible dust as the repercussions can result in costly downtown and in some instances, explosions, serious injury and possibly even death. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for taming pesky powder processing challenges including:
- Defuse Dust Dangers - Carefully consider and then counter risks of fire and explosion
- Clamp Down On Clumping - First understand what’s really causing the problem
- What You Don’t Know About Powder Flow - Shear cells can quickly reveal information about flow behavior
- Know Your Vacuum Pumps - Understand the differences between liquid ring and rotary screw dry pumps for distillation
Learn how to tame your pesky powder challenges. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.05/27/2015
When designing a system to transport powders and granules there is a wide variety of considerations. Different applications, installation environments, equipment, material characteristics and how they may change during the process are all part of the equation. While many plants aim to keep costs low and often times use old equipment for a new project this can also further compound a complex challenge. And that's not even taking in to consideration our increased awareness of the risks of an explosion and the need to avoid hazardous emissions. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key considerations affecting today’s best practices for transporting and processing powders and granules including:
- Installing pneumatic conveyors correctly - 10 steps to prevent a variety of common problems
- How to understand accuracy in a bin level monitoring system
- Tubular drag conveying - an alternative to pneumatic conveying
- Vacuum Conveying equipment and the issues of safety, security and sanitation
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.08/13/2014
Are you looking for more information about handling powders?
Do you want to prevent problems before they start and consider alternative methods?
This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting the challenges of handling powders. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:
- Prevent Problems with Fine Particles: Sampling is crucial and demands particular care.
- Don’t Err About Fluidization: Consider its under-appreciated advantages and broader utility.
- Get the Most Out of Your Sterilization Process: Take a close look at two commonly used methods and their associated vacuum technology.
Combustible dust explosions are a risk in many areas of a chemical plant. Are you in compliance? This white paper reviews the OSHA NEP for combustible dust, NFPA standards on explosion hazards, equipment used for explosion protection, and how to avoid the most common shortfalls to compliance.01/27/2014
Hazardous locations have or could potentially have high concentrations of flammable gases, vapors, combustible dusts, etc. A small spark can lead to a horrific explosion dangerous to equipment and workers in the area. Equipment located in hazardous areas must be specifically designed to prevent ignition and explosion.02/24/2012
Wet scrubbers and dry media dust collectors are two very different technologies used to capture dusts generated during production processes. Both types have inherent advantages and disadvantages. Which is best for your application? The choice is not always clear-cut, but this white paper will help with the decision process by providing a comparison between wet and dry dust collectors. It will outline general parameters for equipment selection with respect to dust properties including combustibility, explosibility, particle size, moisture and adhesiveness. It will also discuss how to apply NFPA 484: Standard for Combustible Metals, the standard that best addresses wet collection. Though NFPA 484 is specific to metals, some of its content can and should apply to nonmetal combustible dusts.04/28/2016
This application note from Delta Controls outlines selection and installation criteria for using admittance probes to monitor the level of powders, liquids and other materials. Dielectric constants of more than 200 materials are included.01/05/2006