When choosing filters for your cartridge dust collector, a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) calculation allows you to make the most economical and sustainable choice. TCO is a step-by-step evaluation that explores energy use, maintenance and other factors to compare the real costs of operating a dust collector with different filters. This white paper explains how to perform TCO calculations to save money, time and energy.03/04/2011
In this article, Kumar Dhanasekharan, Ph.D., technical specialist with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specialist Fluent, Inc., shows how modelling crystallizers using CFD can help improve process understanding, control crystal size distribution (CSD) and improve pharmaceutical crystallization results.03/06/2006
The unfortunate propensity of dust explosions to destroy entire facilities and claim lives is very real. Powder handling processes often are comprised of interconnected enclosures and equipment. Flame and pressure resulting from a dust explosion can therefore propagate through piping, across galleries, and reach other pieces of equipment or enclosures, leading to extensive damage. In this Chemical Processing Special Report, we take a look at the latest NFPA standards and dust explosion mitigation strategies. This Special Report covers:
- Significant revisions to dust explosion standards – NFPA 654 major changes include new administrative requirements
- How to defuse dust dangers - carefully consider and then counter risks of fire and explosion
- Five common dust explosion misconceptions that can lead to a false sense of security
Prepare your facility against potential dust explosion dangers. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Special Report now.12/17/2013
This nine-page whitepaper discusses the sources of powder flooding, the dangers it can pose to your equipment and the steps you can take to prevent it from happening.03/01/2005
Download the white paper to receive information on maximizing the performance of your gravimetric feeder. You will receive tips on how to choose and set up the right feeder for the specific material being fed in your process. Handling free flowing, adhesive, cohesive, aeratable, hygroscopic and pressure sensitive materials plus ways on where and how to properly install a gravimetric feeder are discussed.03/18/2014
Pneumatic conveying is an effective form of moving dry materials. However, the long lengths of conveying pipe present a challenge when it comes to addressing cleanliness and sanitation.
While the closed nature of pneumatic conveying systems protects material from outside contamination, like debris, insects, etc., it is difficult to identify and protect against internal forms of contamination, such as buildup, microbial growth, etc. A plant HACCP or sanitation plan that does not address thousands of feet of pipe and dozens of elbows is incomplete and at risk for a recall.03/24/2015
This 23-page white paper is from the Material Handling Institute's Classic Series and discusses the reliability of automated material handling systems.05/31/2005
Plants have traditionally used trays in the distillation columns to produce fuels grade ethanol. Trays of various configurations have been adequate in this service and their technology is well founded. The ever-present desire to reduce the energy needed to produce a gallon of ethanol has opened the doors to structured packings being used in the rectification sections of ethanol distillation columns.04/10/2007
Manufacturing a pure product can be critically important to the next steps in the manufacture of a powder-based product. As a result the removal of residual moisture and solvents from the crystallization, filtration and drying steps can be crucial to producing a stable product.06/28/2006
This 4-page case history by Jeroen van den Berg of Bolz-Summix discusses how changing process conditions within a conical screw dryer eliminated granulation and minimized product segregation.05/02/2006
Preventing Phenolic Resin Reactor Accidents: Easy to Use Procedure for Checking Adequacy of Emergency Relief Vent Sizes
An easy to use generalized vent sizing formula is illustrated to be consistent with large scale industry experience and dedicated phenolic runaway reaction tests performed by Fauske & Associates, LLC. The formula also clearly explains the 1999 catastrophic failure of a phenol-formaldehyde reactor resulting from a grossly undersized relief system.06/25/2012
A material’s characteristics and how they may change during processing can affect HOW these materials are processed. Key factors affecting powders include aeration, moisture absorption, electrostatic charging to name a few. Many bulk solids are sensitive to heat and humidity. As these levels rise, either in the feeder system or via outside conditions, flow problems crop up. As the powder gains strength, jams and poor flow conditions begin to appear. Costly downtime and a loss of product are incurred while a search is made for a solution to the flow problems. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key factors affecting powders and today’s best practices for overcoming the processing of powders including:
- Looking beyond the physical properties of particles and treating powder as a bulk entity
- How scanners take volume to a new level - acoustics-based sensors can help accurately measure the volume of powders in vessels
- How to determine a coating’s volatile content - advancements in rapid loss-on-drying techniques significantly reduce testing time
- Testing powder flow - advances in test methods help better predict flow behavior at elevated temperature and humidity levels
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.02/19/2014
This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting the various challenges presented by processing today.
Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:
- Vacuum Shelf Dryer Provides More-Uniform Cakes: Different approach to endpoint determination leads to greater consistency.
- Stop What You’re Doing: Challenging existing practices may spur significant improvements.
- Consider Vacuum Drying: A vacuum drying pump offers several advantages for removing vapor over other methods.
- Understand Powder Flow Characteristics: a powder’s variables and external factors will greatly impact blender size and type.
Process design and process safety are critical considerations in chemical production and processing. With design and safety paramount at the outset of any new development or equipment retrofit, firms can minimize risk exposure, maximize productivity and position themselves to remain compliant and competitive. Whether retrofit or new, chemical processing is continually challenged by combustible dust. Combustible dust can pose a hidden hazard when accumulation occurs in unseen locations such as in mechanical spaces, above false ceiling, ventilation systems and dust collection systems. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for mitigating combustible dust hazards including:
- Identifying hidden hazards - a case study outlining how a facility finds danger from accumulated dust and effectively addresses it
- Powder flowability - how new measurement methods now make it easier to evaluate flow
- Process safety - properly designed weigh model can optimize safety and improve efficiency
- A multivariate approach to powder processing - an overview of several methods that can help determine which powder properties have the greatest influence on performance
Learn how to preclude powder problems. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.11/11/2014
Are you looking for more information about solids processing operations? The practice of chemical engineering underpins chemical processing. Universities teach design methods for unit operations such as distillation and heat transfer. However, colleges seldom cover solids processing operations. If any discussion takes place, it only focuses on basic particle physics issues related to drag and turbulence. Yet, many processes require extensive handling of solids.
This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting the challenges of solids processing head on. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:
• Solve Solids Processing Conundrums: Understand more about the unique issues posed by solids and why it is crucial for success.
• Measure Viscosity to Improve Your Mixing Process: Get tips on how to select the proper measuring instrument to better monitor your product quality.
• Make Some Sense of Sensors: Learn more about the variety of solutions that exist for flow level detection and inventory management.
• Consider Used Equipment: Get some guidelines to help you select the right pre-owned machine for an application.
Getting a better handle on Solids Process is an on-going challenge for chemical processors. Are you struggling with multiphase sampling? Do you want to conquer pilot plant challenges? Do you want to learn more about how automatic sampling can help control process safely?
This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting these challenges head on. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:
- Don’t Be Fazed By Multiphase Sampling: An isokinetic system can provide accurate samples;
- Conquer Pilot Plant Challenges: Use design of experiments to minimize the number of runs and ensure meaningful data;
- Case Study: Sampler Helps Control Process Safely: Automatic samplers can be key to ensuring process samples are repeatable and reliable;
The mechanisms of powder flow are complex. They are influenced by an array of different parameters; some relate to the particles’ physical attributes, such as size and shape, and others, such as humidity, to the system itself. Although there is a general understanding of these individual mechanisms, the multitude of interactions that govern the specific behavior of a given powder can many and in turn, affect how these powders are processed. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at technologies and strategies for handling powders including:
- How to Optimize Humidity for Efficient Powder Handling - too much or too little moisture can cause problems during processing and storage
- How to Select the Right Conveying and Feeding System - successful bulk handling of calcium carbonate depends on a variety of factors
- Suppressing Explosions for Process Protection - A properly designed and engineered suppression system offers many advantages
In chemical production and processing, process design and process safety are crucial considerations – especially when powders are part of production and processing. Inherent challenges such as increasing throughput, accurately measuring powders to manage inventory and removing excess solvents are all challenges that chemical processors need to contend with. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at these powder processing challenges and identify solutions and strategies to overcome them. Learn more about:
- Vacuum conveying - customization, automation and safety
- Matching level measurement system to a job - consider materials and work environment when choosing a device
- Removing solvent vapors in diverse applications - dry and liquid ring vacuum pumps are alternatives to oil-sealed pumps
- Meeting combustible dust compliance – how a facility tackles combustible dust with aportable central vacuum system
This Chemical Processing eHandbook examines some of today’s Powder challenges and way to navigate solutions for chemical manufacturers.
Do you want to learn more about how to mitigate crystallization challenges? Perplexed by blending myths? Do you want to know more about the mystery of time effects and conducting a time consolidation test? Interested in several methods for condensing water vapor?
Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and solutions including:
- Conquer Crystallization Challenges: Question the need for cooling and ensure you have the right data.
- Beware of Blending Myths: But first determine if blending really is required.
- Solve the Mystery of Time effects: Conduct a time consolidation test to determine the flow performance of a bulk solid.
- Handle Water Vapor within Oil-Sealed Vacuum Pumps: Evaluate several methods for condensing water vapor.
This paper will discuss the use of pattern recognition techniques to identify and differentiate different particle types contained in a heterogeneous solution. This application involves imaging the microscopic particles in real-time as they flow in a solution, segregating each individual particle as a separate image, and then applying pattern recognition techniques to differentiate the individual particle types.A framework for discussing the complexity of a pattern recognition operation in this application will be proposed, along with some specific examples showing how this framework applies.09/03/2008