Welded vessels play a key role in most processes. However, few plants now have in-depth expertise in materials selection, fabrication and design of such vessels. As a result, plant staff often make errors that can be costly as well as compromise the suitability and life of the vessel. This three-part special report provides practical pointers that can help you avoid common mistakes and get the most appropriate, durable and cost-effective vessel.
- Part 1 looks at a dozen important factors to consider in materials selection, including metal selection and appropriate use of corrosion allowances and coatings. It includes pointers gleaned from first-hand experiences that can help you avoid costly mistakes and delays.
- Part 2 provides tips on how to avoid delays and achieve savings in the fabrication process. It also covers techniques that can improve vessel reliability and thus forestall costly repairs down the road.
- Part 3 gets into design issues. It condenses the 5,000+ pages of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code into a simple guide when specifying vessels, heat exchangers and tanks. It focuses on 10 key factors.
Download your Chemical Processing special report now.10/28/2014
Systems are becoming more complex. This complexity is changing the nature of the accidents and losses we are experiencing. Process design and process safety are critical considerations in chemical production and processing. With design and safety paramount at the outset of any new development or equipment retrofit, firms can minimize risk exposure, maximize productivity and position themselves to remain compliant and competitive. Advanced automation technologies continue to drive productivity improvements. In this Chemical Processing Improve Plant Safety eHandbook, we provide tips for safer processing including:
- The role of senior management including six important steps senior management should take to insure safer processing
- Optimizing process safety and efficiency through modern weighing design
- The fundamentals of blast-resistant building
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Improve Plant Safety eHandbook now.10/22/2014
With more demanding applications than most, chemical processing requires systems and infrastructure that can maintain efficiency and safety. Relative to flow, chemical processors need to address challenges such as corrosion, leak detection and mitigation, flow pressure and volume. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we identify tips to improve flow including:
- Distillation columns - how gravity-flow loop can enable measuring internal liquid flow in a column
- The importance of the Process Design Basis
- Flowmeters - monitor, detect and neutralize phosgene leaks
- Polymer Piping - Material offers numerous benefits over metallic systems and spans various applications
Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.10/15/2014
Increasingly stringent clean air standards and heightened concerns over greenhouse gas emissions are driving technology enhancements in the chemical processing industry. This white paper explains some of the abatement challenges this industry faces and demonstrates how many chemical processors are integrating newer, more efficient emission control technologies for the destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs).
The paper also includes a case study, demonstrating how one Pure Terephthalic Acid (PTA) plant saved nearly one million dollars by upgrading to a newer thermal oxidizer technology.10/01/2014
Hazardous locations have or could potentially have high concentrations of flammable gases, vapors, combustible dusts, etc. A small spark can lead to a horrific explosion dangerous to equipment and workers in the area. Equipment located in hazardous areas must be specifically designed to prevent ignition and explosion.
Read this White Paper to learn:
- Types of hazardous areas
- Conditions classified as hazardous
- Hazardous substances
- Specifications for equipment located in hazardous areas
- Explosion proof dryers designed for compressed air systems
More than 25% of maintenance done today is unnecessary and can introduce additional failure risks. Developing and implementing predictive maintenance strategies and practices can lead to improved safety and reduced operating costs. In this Chemical Processing eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for overcoming predictive maintenance challenges including:
- Asset management software - identifying the most relevant and accurate data on which to build maintenance and repair strategies
- The importance of maintenance on smaller component - using gauges as early warning devices can improve uptime, safety and profits
- Uncovering important insights from your data and the use of statistics such as regression analysis for emulating pump curves or control valves
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Predictive Maintenance eHandbook now.09/26/2014
Corrosion and premature piping failure are two problems that plague chemical piping applications everywhere. Metallic systems are necessarily limited in their life spans by corrosion concerns, and operations managers must always face the question of when their pipes will eventually need repair or replacement. Polymer piping systems have made great strides across multiple industries in the past few decades, and investigating the benefits that can be realized by making the switch from metallic systems can help to bring unexpected value to many applications.
This paper will specifically evaluate the benefits of polymer piping systems in three industries: power generation, chemical processing, and mineral processing.09/22/2014
During industrial manufacturing, many companies use a wide variety of chemicals from methanol, acetone and benzene to foodstuffs like wine and edible oils stored in large tanks at different points in the manufacturing process. In a technique called “chemical tank blanketing,” or “padding” nitrogen is commonly applied to protect chemicals stored in tanks against contamination, degradation or chemical change as well as to prevent fire or explosions. This white paper first discusses blanketing basics and benefits. It reviews considerations for tank blanketing systems and discusses a newer approach, which is typically more cost effective for most applications, is that of generating nitrogen on-demand in the plant itself.09/12/2014
Research Paper: Investigating the Relationship between Gypsum Purity and Hydrogen Sulfide Production under Anaerobic Conditions
Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) more commonly known as gypsum is a naturally occurring white crystalline mineral that has many different uses and applications. Gypsum in its hydrated form (CaSO4•2H2O) is used in the construction industry for fire resistance in buildings. Outside of the construction industry, gypsum is used in the food and fertilizer industry for calcium and sulfate fortification respectively. When gypsum is no longer usable, it is deposited in construction and demolition(C&D) landfills where anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions and the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria promote the decomposition of wallboard/gypsum into hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Due to local and state regulations on odor control, these C&D sites monitor their fill for hydrogen sulfide gas. This paper will couple two methods of analysis to observe the relationship between the purity of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) and hydrogen sulfide concentration as a sample is fermented by sulfate-reducing agents (e.g. bacteria). The scope of this research may be beneficial for industrial hygienists concerned with C&D landfill H2S levels or for incoming gypsum processing plants who suspect poor quality gypsum.09/12/2014
Level measurement, which is the detection of the phase split between vapor/liquid, liquid/liquid, vapor/solid and even liquid/solid, is a key parameter in the operation and control of modern industrial processes. A reliable outcome depends on the phase conditions being relatively consistent under all process conditions. Unfortunately, the importance of level control isn’t always understood. Failure to measure level reliably has resulted in some of the most serious industrial accidents, including those at the Buncefield, U.K., fuel storage depot and BP’s Texas City refinery. In this Chemical Processing Level Management eHandbook, we discuss best practices for level management including:
- How to Select the Right Liquid Level Sensor - It’s important to consider a variety of factors when choosing the type of technology
- Multivariable devices - gain operating and maintenance benefits
- Achieving level control with dP transmitters - it appears simple but really is not
When designing a system to transport powders and granules there is a wide variety of considerations. Different applications, installation environments, equipment, material characteristics and how they may change during the process are all part of the equation. While many plants aim to keep costs low and often times use old equipment for a new project this can also further compound a complex challenge. And that's not even taking in to consideration our increased awareness of the risks of an explosion and the need to avoid hazardous emissions. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key considerations affecting today’s best practices for transporting and processing powders and granules including:
- Installing pneumatic conveyors correctly - 10 steps to prevent a variety of common problems
- How to understand accuracy in a bin level monitoring system
- Tubular drag conveying - an alternative to pneumatic conveying
- Vacuum Conveying equipment and the issues of safety, security and sanitation
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.08/13/2014
In addition to flow pressure, volume and material state, achieving and maintaining desired flow performance depends upon properly addressing some complicated design and operational issues. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we identify strategies and solutions for aerodynamic, technical, mechanical and economic constraints including:
Hydrogen systems – Inspections and tests for ensuring safety and flow
Axial compressors – achieving and maintaining desired performance
Fight flow recirculation – why the phenomenon occurs in centrifugal pumps and how to correct it
Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.07/16/2014
The debate over the virtues of DCS vs. PLC has been ongoing since these two architectures came into existence 40 years ago. For certain industries, a distributed control system (DCS) provides substantially more value as the basis for automating the plant than a programmable logic controller (PLC)-based system. As functionality differences narrow and price points align, the debate over these virtues is getting more intense and the arguments for and against each system are getting more and more murky. This white paper discusses the “Top Ten” issues to consider when evaluating a DCS vs. building your own “DIY” distributed control system using a PLC-based architecture.07/15/2014
Treating and reusing process water is a multidimensional challenge for process plants. Compliance with regulatory requirements to prevent and mitigate industrial pollution can require significant capital investment as well as ongoing maintenance outlays. The increasing scarcity and cost of fresh water for production processes also compounds the problem. In this Chemical Processing Wastewater eHandbook we take a look at how to widen your perspective on wastewater including:
- Optimizing water cleanup with activated carbon - including a few pointers to make the most of absorption systems
- Improving plant performance with solids/turbidity monitoring - how continuous monitoring in the liquid processes stages of a wastewater treatment plant offers important benefits
- How to solve partially filled pipe flow measurement challenges
- How variable frequency drives can reduce installation and programming costs while providing a host of other benefits
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Water Wastewater eHandbook now.06/25/2014
Operating and maintaining a reliable steam system is vital to chemical processing plants and can have significant cost impact on a plant's annual budget. Typical profit drainers in operating and maintaining a steam system include excessive fuel cost, inefficient steam generation, less-than-optimal steam utlization and poor condensate recovery. Ensuring adequate supply of steam often results in excessive capacity usage, expensive fuel choices or condensate draining to grade, leading to compromised efficiency levels and higher steam cost. Because steam systems dependency is unavoidalbe, addressing those three issues is crucial to minimizing steam costs.
This Chemical Processing Steam eHandbook presents an overview, steam technologies and strategies for reducing cost associated with using and generating steam including:
- Controlling steam system energy costs
- Real-time monitoring - how wireless devices help cut energy losses by detecting failed steam traps
- Additional resources
Learn how to generate savings through steam use and generation. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Steam eHandbook now.05/21/2014
Breakdown of organic wastes entering a wastewater treatment plant is accomplished by using a biomass or blend of beneficial microscopic organisms, bacteria, and solids. This converts the nonsettleable solids (dissolved and colloidal matter) into settleable solids, carbon dioxide, water, and energy. This paper reviews the most common stages for measuring and controlling dissolved oxygen in a wastewater treatment plant.05/13/2014
Energy consumption remains one of the largest controllable costs in oil refineries. Heat exchanger fouling can have a significant impact on energy efficiency and production loss. Asphaltene Precipitation is caused when refiners blend incompatible crudes. This is a major source of fouling and leads to performance limitations within days. Heat exchanger fouling is a major challenge for refinery operations. With the increase in crude blending from opportunity crudes such as tight oil, the traditional “manual” monitoring approach may no longer be effective. This White Paper discusses how on-line monitoring and analysis can enable refineries to:
- Better Understand Accelerated Fouling Due to Crude Incompatibilities
- Learn How to Use Online Monitoring to Detect Fouling
- Identify Which Tube Bundles Require Cleaning
Powders developed to meet certain product performance targets often suffer from inconsistent and unpredictable flow. The reasons for this are many. A material's characteristics - adhesiveness, cohesiveness, aeratability, pressure-sensitivity - often change during processing and can cause flow problems to crop up. Couple this with changes in the processes themselves and costly downtime can be the result. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for overcoming powder processing challenges including:
- Making the most of flow additives - understand their impact on overall powder behavior to optimize flow
- Improving performance of gravimetric feeders - tips to avoid poor accuracy and frequent downtime
- Protecting against combustible dust explosion - economical approaches for protecting spray dryer processes and solutions
Make the most of your powder processes. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
Corrosion, leak detection and mitigation, flow pressure and volume are all factors that maintenance managers and other decision makers need to contend with as they manage flow at their chemical processing plants. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we delve in to solutions and strategies for managing these challenges including:
- Leak management - treat them as calls for action against the underlying problem
- VFDs for centrifugal pumps - such drives may provide energy savings and avoid operating problems
- Dealing with corrosion - piping made of high-performance plastic provides unmatched performance and longevity
- Ceramic in electromagnetic flow meters - material used for measuring tubes offers high performance, longevity and a host of other benefits
Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.04/16/2014
Sponsored By: Parker
Chemical plants vary widely in size and complexity yet share common goals for maximizing efficiency safely and cost effectively. This Chemical Processing Special Report tackles two areas in chemical processing - compressed air systems and powder handling - where gains can be achieved for improving efficiency. We also address the concerns of safety as it relates to drying compressed air in hazardous atmospheres.
- Whether compressed air systems are centrifugal, rotary screw, reciprocating compressors or a combination, this Special Report provides and understanding of what’s involved in getting a suitable supply of compressed air.
- Efficient powder handling can be achieved through optimized humidity management.
- Safe drying practices in hazardous air locations