Ensuring the security of industrial control systems is hardly a new topic. The earliest users of modern control systems in power stations and chemical plants saw the need to protect access to vital control functions from unauthorized use. Similarly, in industries such as fine chemical or pharmaceutical
where the process is the product, manufacturers have always sought to protect the secrets of their unique processes from the prying eyes of industrial spies. This white paper by ARC describes how the Siemens AG PCS7 Security Concept bundles key security measures in seveal specific areas to create a deep hierarchy of security known as defense in depth.
The WirelessHART standard provides a robust wireless protocol for the full range of process measurement, control and asset management applications. Based on the proven and familiar HART protocol, it enables users to quickly and easily gain the benefits of wireless technology while maintaining compatibility with existing devices, tools and systems.
Except for a few odd services, high liquid rate applications are typically the domain of either trays or random packings. Aside from the distributors, random packing designs are rather straightforward with the designer choosing the proper size to accommodate the fluid flow rates and achieve the desired efficiency. Trays, on the other hand, have a large variety of adjustable parameters and can be especially complex, especially when designed for high liquid rate applications.
Plants have traditionally used trays in the distillation columns to produce fuels grade ethanol. Trays of various configurations have been adequate in this service and their technology is well founded. The ever-present desire to reduce the energy needed to produce a gallon of ethanol has opened the doors to structured packings being used in the rectification sections of ethanol distillation columns.
This white paper outlines trends and opportunities for gasket standardization in processing plants ... including the potential for more reliable sealing, cost savings, inventory reduction, easier installation and safety practices. Steps are outlined for achieving success in gasket standardization across steel, glass-lined and FRP piping.
Batch manufacturing systems must maintain the status of equipment, including which are available, dirty, out of service, etc. In industries that enforce Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), additional status types and values for process equipment must be maintained. Rules associated with the equipment status can be complex and involve the equipment class, current equipment state and time in the current
state. This paper covers the operator interface used to review the equipment status and the interlocking requirements between the recipe and batch phases based on multiple status types.
Batch process control security is becoming a critical concern for the process control domain, IT technology infrastructure and the business enterprise. This paper explores several key security concerns in batch control system architectures and methods for addressing these issues.
Industrial automation is no longer limited by the walls of a production facility. More and more automation is being handled via remote communication, whether its from the office or from the comfort of your own home. Todays PLCs give you the ability to access your control system to
handle such tasks as monitoring via a website to determine the condition of a machine or check other statistics.
This document describes best practices for the reference architecture for a process control system network and its interfaces to a corporate network. The papers objective is to give the reader an understanding of the techniques utilized to securely connect these networks.
This application note from Delta Controls outlines selection and installation criteria for using admittance probes to monitor the level of powders, liquids and other materials. Dielectric constants of more than 200 materials are included.
This white paper discusses SONAR-based, clamp-on gas volume fraction meters which recently have been introduced to the industry that provide an accurate, real time, measurement of entrained gases. Coupling entrained gas volume fraction monitor with most types of process density meters, enables accurate determination of liquid and the liquid-solid components of aerated mixtures.
Automation designers face many challenges and tradeoffs in the development of a successful network solution. This white paper discusses the necessary choices in selecting a network technology appropriate for various specific applications.
In the real world, sharing PCN data with external systems and accessing PCN systems from external
sources is fast becoming a business necessity. This paper provides some generic guidelines for enabling
secure connectivity between PCNs and external systems.
With a number of vendors producing Programmable Automation Controllers that combine the functionality of a PC and reliability of a PLC, PACs today are increasingly being incorporated into control systems. This white paper explores the origins of the PAC, how PACs differ from PLCs and PCs, and the future direction of industrial control with PACs.
Designers who understand and can take advantage of the differences between fluid power and traditional electromechanical power can build machines that produce higher quality output with lower lifecycle costs. This white paper suggests that care must be taken, however, in selecting and sizing the hydraulic system elements and in tuning the motion controller for optimal performance.