Process Engineering White Papers

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  • Biodiesel Fuel From Palm Oil – Too Good to be Used as Fuel?

    The high prices for oil and gas have spotlighted other sources of fuel for internal combustion engines. Biofuel, a fuel derived from ethanol, and biodiesel fuel, a dieselequivalent derived from biological sources, are 2 possible substitutes for petrochemical fuel. Palm oil is increasingly used as feedstock for the production of biodiesel, but certain palm oil fractions have other uses, e.g., in the cosmetics and food industries. Sulzer Chemtech’s technology supports the separation of crude palm oil (CPO) in its valuable constituents.

    Sulzer Chemtech AG
    01/11/2007
  • Rectifier design for fuel ethanol plants reduces energy

    Plants have traditionally used trays in the distillation columns to produce fuels grade ethanol. Trays of various configurations have been adequate in this service and their technology is well founded. The ever-present desire to reduce the energy needed to produce a gallon of ethanol has opened the doors to structured packings being used in the rectification sections of ethanol distillation columns.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA
    04/10/2007
  • Removing Liquid From Gas

    Liquid entrainment in a gas stream can be a disturbance in many industrial processes. In natural-gas processing, higher-order hydrocarbons, water or impurities have to be separated from the main methane stream. Upstream of gas compressors, droplets that can damage the impellers, have to be removed. With the recently acquired Knitmesh technology and the strategic alliance with Shell Global Solutions, Sulzer Chemtech can supply a broad portfolio of advanced, tailor-made systems for gas/liquid separation to customers in all industries.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA
    09/17/2007
  • Design Considerations for High Liquid Rate Tray Applications

    Except for a few odd services, high liquid rate applications are typically the domain of either trays or random packings. Aside from the distributors, random packing designs are rather straightforward with the designer choosing the proper size to accommodate the fluid flow rates and achieve the desired efficiency. Trays, on the other hand, have a large variety of adjustable parameters and can be especially complex, especially when designed for high liquid rate applications.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA, Inc.
    09/17/2007
  • Biodiesel Fuel From Palm Oil – Too Good to be Used as Fuel?

    The high prices for oil and gas have spotlighted other sources of fuel for internal combustion engines. Biofuel, a fuel derived from ethanol, and biodiesel fuel, a dieselequivalent derived from biological sources, are two possible substitutes for petrochemical fuel.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA, Inc.
    08/29/2006
  • Specifying industrial fieldbus networks for automation

    Automation designers face many challenges and tradeoffs in the development of a successful network solution. This white paper discusses the necessary choices in selecting a network technology appropriate for various specific applications.

    Texas Instruments
    10/12/2005
  • Understand Heat-Transfer-Fluid Maximum Temperature Rating

    Manufacturers of heat transfer fluids assign a maximum temperature rating to each fluid. This rating must be considered to ensure the safe and efficient operation of the fluid. This paper explains the basis of the rating, how fluids degrade, and how the temperature profile in a heat transfer system affects fluid performance and life.

    Therminol
    10/11/2004
  • Alarm Philosophy Development

    A complete alarm philosophy document (APD) covers all elements, including design principles, KPIs and escalation policies. Creating an APD to outline these elements is the first step in a successful alarm management project. This paper provides an overview for the essential parts of a complete APD.

    TiPS Inc.
    10/13/2010
  • Alarm Rationalization

    While the activity of alarm rationalization is straightforward, its application can range from simple to extremely complex depending on resources and objectives. This white paper introduces two basic methodologies: Bounded or Unbounded, and evaluates the benefits of each.

    TiPS Incorporated
    10/07/2009
  • The 7 Steps to ICS and SCADA Security

    The past two years have been a real wakeup call for the industrial automation industry. For the first time ever it has been the target of sophisticated cyber attacks like Stuxnet, Night Dragon and Duqu.

    In addition, an unprecedented number of security vulnerabilities have been exposed in industrial control products and regulatory agencies are demanding compliance to complex and confusing regulations. Cyber security has quickly become a serious issue for professionals in the process and critical infrastructure industries.

    If you are a process control engineer, an IT professional in a company with an automation division, or a business manager responsible for safety or security, you may be wondering how your organization can get moving on more robust cyber security practices.

    In order to provide you with guidance in this area, Tofino Security and exida Consulting LLC have condensed material from numerous industry standards and best practice documents. They also combined experience in assessing the security of dozens of industrial control systems.

    The result is an easy-to-follow 7-step process.

    Tofino Security and exida Consulting LLC
    02/28/2012
  • White Paper: Ten Tips for Completing a Site Security Plan

    Working on your Site Security Plan (SSP)? The next stage in the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS) compliance process requires covered facilities to submit a SSP. Given the importance of the SSP, covered facilities should address a number of factors while they complete this step in the CFATS regulation. Download this complimentary whitepaper now: Ten Tips for Completing your SSP.

    Tyco Integrated Security
    03/10/2010
  • Surviving the CFATS Site Security Plan – Tips for Inspection and Resubmission

    As the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) moves forward with the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS), the program continues to evolve. This white paper describes the ongoing CFATS compliance process (which is a combination of technical, procedural, and personnel security) and also provides insight regarding how to develop or revise a comprehensive Site Security Plan (SSP) and prepare for a CFATS Authorization Inspection (AI). Recommendations are relevant to SSPs for all tier levels and should be considered for a facility's initial SSP submission and/or any required SSP resubmission. Download this white paper now: Tips for Inspection and Resubmission.

    Tyco Integrated Security
    07/25/2012
  • Maritime Transportation Security Act - Tips & Updates

    Remain informed about adjustments to MTSA and learn how the program continues to evolve. This paper provides regulatory updates on the current state of MTSA and information about Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC). Find out about new challenges, such as harmonization with Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS). The paper also covers the current discussion among industry and government officials regarding the differences associated with the MTSA and CFATS programs, including ways to coordinate chemical security regulations. Learn about TWIC reader pilot program updates, as well as practical tips for compliance. Download MTSA Tips & Updates Paper

    Tyco Integrated Security
    01/11/2012
  • Oxygen in cell culture/venting ozonated vessels

    This white paper outlines trends and opportunities for gasket standardization in processing plants ... including the potential for more reliable sealing, cost savings, inventory reduction, easier installation and safety practices. Steps are outlined for achieving success in gasket standardization across steel, glass-lined and FRP piping.

    W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.
    10/18/2006
  • Gasket Standardization in the CPI

    This white paper outlines trends and opportunities for gasket standardization in processing plants ... including steps outlining how to achieve gasket standardization across steel, glass-lined and FRP piping.

    W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.
    06/12/2006
  • White Paper: Internet Access in a Process Control Environment

    Industrial automation is no longer limited by the walls of a production facility. More and more automation is being handled via remote communication, whether it’s from the office or from the comfort of your own home. Today’s PLCs give you the ability to access your control system to handle such tasks as monitoring via a website to determine the condition of a machine or check other statistics.

    Wago Innovative Connections
    04/24/2006
  • Peristaltic Pumps: A Simple Solution for Abrasive and Corrosive Chemicals

    Finding the right pump for metering abrasive and aggressive chemicals can be challenging. The pump of choice needs to withstand harsh chemicals, accurately meter, and be simple to maintain and operate. More and more process engineers are turning to peristaltic pumps to solve their pumping problems, reducing life cycle costs and driving gains in process efficiency.

    Watson-Marlow Pumps Group
    05/07/2009
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