Process Engineering White Papers

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  • Process Filtration Scale-Up from Lab to Commercial Operation

    This article discusses process filtration approach developed for each technology stage starting from batch filtration in the lab to continuous filtration for the full-scale commercial operation. Process engineers must not “jump to conclusions”, a reference from Sherlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson who prove time and again is that there is no benefit to jumping to conclusions. Therefore, laboratory / bench top filtration testing is covered for problem analysis, technology selection and pilot and demonstration scale-up. The paper continues with the filtration testing and then scale-up to the commercial size. Finally, the paper concludes with a general review of the problem-solving skills of Holmes and Watson and how these skills can be utilized by process engineers as a framework for “idea-generation” when analyzing a new process scale-up.

    Download now.

  • Process Filtration Technology: Making Informed Decisions

    Solid-liquid separation is an instrumental part of chemical processing. To separate the solid particles, filter media made of textile or metallic materials and of composite materials are used as the basis for the filter cake. Often there will also be a washing process to improve the purity of the filter cake or to increase the yield of the liquid phase. Solid-liquid separation can be carried out in continuous or batch operation. There are many factors for selecting the right process filtration system for your specific application. This white paper reviews methods for identifying the right process filtration technology for your application and highlights case studies illustrating the methods discussed.

  • Process Moisture Analysis using FT-NIR

    Manufacturing a pure product can be critically important to the next steps in the manufacture of a powder-based product. As a result the removal of residual moisture and solvents from the crystallization, filtration and drying steps can be crucial to producing a stable product.

    Bruker Optics
  • Process Safety Management

    This guide from the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration covers pre-startup safety review, mechanical integrity, how-work permits, management of change, incident investigation, emergency planning and response and compliance audits, among other topics.

  • Process Safety Symposium – Making Safety Second Nature

    This 10-page document discusses how the reference from the Center for Chemical Process Safety -- "Inherently Safer Chemical Processes, A Life Cycle Approach," 1st Edition, 1996 -- was updated in 2007. Inherent Safety has been well received by industry, but there has been significant advancement in the concept of inherently safer design over the last 10 years. This overview highlights lessons learned and best practices in inherent safety.

  • Productivity Improvement with Wireless Steam

    When steam traps leak or fail, energy is lost and there could also be steam equipment failure or damage and potential safety hazards. A major food manufacturer improved their steam trap program and enhanced their ongoing leak repair campaign with remote steam trap monitoring using Smart Wireless Solutions from Emerson.

  • Properly Clean Organic Heat Transfer Fluid Systems

    Maintaining peak performance of organic heat transfer fluids can require removal of dirt and pipe scale, oxidation, thermal degradation, and process contamination. This paper describes the appropriate cleaning techniques for dealing with solids; sludge, high-viscosity fluid and residues; process contamination; and hard coke.

  • Properly Model and Control Batch Reactors

    This paper covers key aspects for modeling and design of batch reactors, including: heat-up and cool-down performance, sensitivity analysis for reactor parameters, boil-up rate predictions, thermal stability under exothermic conditions, control system design and loop tuning parameters, condenser rating, and process emissions predictions.

  • Properly Model and Control Batch Reactors

    This paper covers key aspects for modeling and design of batch reactors, including: heat-up and cool-down performance, sensitivity analysis for reactor parameters, boil-up rate predictions, thermal stability under exothermic conditions, control system design and loop tuning parameters, condenser rating, and process emissions predictions.

  • Properly Model and Design Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

    Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are widely used throughout the chemical industry. This paper provides a review of the key issues involved in their thermal design. It covers both process and mechanical issues, and discusses appropriate methods for determining various parameters.

  • Push Maintenance: The New Frontier in Asset Management

    The convergence of innovative technologies using open industry standards simplifies communication between software and technology. Now you can centralize key performance diagnostics, push critical information to the workforce, and problems can be solved from anywhere.

  • Raising Confidence and Driving Business Value with Product and REACH Compliance

    Over the past 10 years, manufacturers have faced an increasing number of compliance and product quality challenges, ranging from new regulations to product recalls. This White Paper details the business case for an integrated and comprehensive view of product and REACH compliance processes. If "done right," it is expected that these improvements to the compliance process can not only provide time and cost savings but also open doors to new markets, lower risks associated with complex supply chains, protect the reputation of the brand, and create a foundation for environmental sustainability.

  • Recovering Precious Metals from Spent Chemical Processing Catalysts

    Most chemical processors use precious-metal-bearing catalysts for facilitating and/or speeding chemical reactions. These catalysts are typically composed of platinum group metals (PGMs). After a number of process cycles the catalysts lose their efficacy and must be replaced with fresh catalysts. Spent catalysts are sent to a precious-metals refiner for recovery and refining of the valuable PGMs remaining in this material. Selecting—and working with—a precious-metals refiner is critical to ensure highest possible returns and peace of mind with regard to environmental concerns. Download and read this 22-page white paper to learn more about recovering precious metals from spent catalysts.

    Sabin Metal Corp.
  • Rectifier design for fuel ethanol plants reduces energy

    Plants have traditionally used trays in the distillation columns to produce fuels grade ethanol. Trays of various configurations have been adequate in this service and their technology is well founded. The ever-present desire to reduce the energy needed to produce a gallon of ethanol has opened the doors to structured packings being used in the rectification sections of ethanol distillation columns.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA
  • Reducing Water Consumption in Compressed Air Systems

    Compressed air systems are sometimes called the "4th Utility" due to their presence in almost all industrial processes and facilities. As US water consumption continues to increase, compressed air systems provide an opportunity for energy managers to reduce associated cooling water consumption and costs. In this white paper, we focus on the opportunity to reduce the water consumption of compressed air systems. Understanding the costs and the alternative types of cooling systems is an important first step. This white paper provides background on US water consumption in both the public and industrial sectors; it provides detail on industrial water consumption -- including industrial cooling water -- and its associated costs; it also details six different types of cooling systems available.

  • Relief Design for Reactive Systems – Get the Facts

    This 15-page paper focuses on the additional degrees of complexity that reactive systems pose for emergency relief systems. It covers topics such as how to screen for reactivity and what practices, standards and regulations should be followed, as well as a host of other issues.

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