Design Guidelines for Distillation Columns in Fouling Service
This 33-page paper discusses the wide variety of factors that can cause fouling and the impact of this fouling on the performance of a distillation column. It then provides details on practical methods for mitigating fouling, including equipment design, surface treatment, and use of additives.
Achieve 21 CFR Part 11 Compliance
This technical white paper discusses Yokogawas CENTUM CS 3000 R3 DCS (Distributed Control System) product and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records/Electronic Signatures Rule.
Design the Heat-Transfer-System Expansion Tank Right
The design of the expansion tank plays an important role in the successful operation of a heat transfer system using organic fluids. It can contribute to longer fluid life and lower maintenance. This paper describes the proper sizing, piping and valving, instrumenting, and inerting of the tank.
Understand Heat-Transfer-Fluid Maximum Temperature Rating
Manufacturers of heat transfer fluids assign a maximum temperature rating to each fluid. This rating must be considered to ensure the safe and efficient operation of the fluid. This paper explains the basis of the rating, how fluids degrade, and how the temperature profile in a heat transfer system affects fluid performance and life.
Process Safety Management
This guide from the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration covers pre-startup safety review, mechanical integrity, how-work permits, management of change, incident investigation, emergency planning and response and compliance audits, among other topics.
Succeed at Alarm Management
Today's control system make it easy to add alarms. The result has been a proliferation of alarms that can overwhelm an operator and actually obscure situations that really require immediate attention. This paper provides practical guidance on effective procedures that can significantly reduce nuisance alarms and improve operator effectiveness.
Permit-Required Confined Spaces
This new U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration paper describes OHSA's confined-space satndard, and discusses how to meet it by controlling hazards, administering entry permits and assigning duties, as well as how to deal with emergencies and OSHA assistance available.
Properly Clean Organic Heat Transfer Fluid Systems
Maintaining peak performance of organic heat transfer fluids can require removal of dirt and pipe scale, oxidation, thermal degradation, and process contamination. This paper describes the appropriate cleaning techniques for dealing with solids; sludge, high-viscosity fluid and residues; process contamination; and hard coke.
Succeed at Dynamic Modeling of Batch Reactors and Batch Distillation
This paper reviews the basic techniques for dynamic modeling of these two key operations. It covers considerations related to heat transfer, reaction chemistry, mass balances and the control system. It also discusses equipment configurations, performance characteristics and operational constraints.
Selecting Transmitters for Safety Instrumented Systems
This paper presents best practices that allow the user to quantify the impact of real-world failure causes and to take credit for improvements in system design. Besides selection, it also covers installation and maintenance.