How to control a process with long dead time
A process with a large dead time presents a special challenge for a controller -- any controller. This short paper explains how to get the best control of large dead time processes.
Level measurement of bulk solids and powders
This 26-page white paper from Monitor Technologies discusses the difficulties in measuring bulk solids and powders in bins, silos and hoppers. Download this document to learn which technologies are out there that can make this job easier.
Continuous PHA Revalidation
A process hazard analysis must be revalidated every five years. This paper discusses the merits of a new approach aimed at increasing the effectiveness of PHAs, called Continuous PHA revalidation.
Facility Major Risk Survey
This 8-page primer describes a method for identification of major acute risks in existing process facilities that can potentially affect on-site and off-site populations and for prioritization of mitigation methods.
Relief Design for Reactive Systems Get the Facts
This 15-page paper focuses on the additional degrees of complexity that reactive systems pose for emergency relief systems. It covers topics such as how to screen for reactivity and what practices, standards and regulations should be followed, as well as a host of other issues.
Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Rules And Limitations
The standard reference for PID tuning seems to be the Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules developed in 1942 on a pneumatic controller. Here is how to tune a controller using these rules.
How to Choose a Vacuum Dryer
Vacuum drying can be applied in a range of processes in several industries, including chemical, pharmaceutical, food, plastics, and metal powders. This article first discusses vacuum drying benefits and limitations and dryer components and operation, then explains the differences between tumble and agitated vacuum dryers and how you can select one for your application.
Why Process Safety Management Audits Fail
Most companies have completed at least three process safety management(PSM) compliance audits of their covered facilities since the promulgation of the OSHA PSM standard. These companies, however, are not seeing noticeable improvements in their PSM programs. In fact, many companies feel that their PSM programs have become less effective. What has happened and why? Are there any lessons learned from the Enron collapse and its auditing program? What needs to be done?
Risk-Based Process Safety Design
Safe design has long been a priority in the process industries. A safe design basis, together with a formal safety management system and safety practices, procedures, and training, is critical for providing that level of confidence required for risk management. The goal of process safety management is to consistently reduce risk to a level that can be tolerated by all concerned. A systematic, risk-based approach to safety design can help eliminate hazards that pose intolerable risk from the process and mitigate the potential consequences of hazards.
Understanding Regulated Health and Safety Standards--Part 1
This paper provides the viewpoint of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), a private not-for-profit, non-governmental corporation open to all industrial hygienists or other occupational health and safety professionals. The authors have the opinion that there are misunderstandings about the use of regulated health and safety standards.
In part one of this article, they provide some information on how regulations are formed and advice on using these values to conduct business. Employers and employees need this fundamental understanding to make informed health and safety decisions. This information is also useful for guiding public decisions about everyday toxic exposures.
Nonwoven Fabric Filtration Media
This 6-page primer explains the various forms of nonwoven media, their special characteristics, as well as filter configurations and function. It discusses advantages and disadvantages, and application trends.
Design Guidelines for Distillation Columns in Fouling Service
This 33-page paper discusses the wide variety of factors that can cause fouling and the impact of this fouling on the performance of a distillation column. It then provides details on practical methods for mitigating fouling, including equipment design, surface treatment, and use of additives.