Process Engineering White Papers

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  • Process Safety Symposium – Making Safety Second Nature

    This 10-page document discusses how the reference from the Center for Chemical Process Safety -- "Inherently Safer Chemical Processes, A Life Cycle Approach," 1st Edition, 1996 -- was updated in 2007. Inherent Safety has been well received by industry, but there has been significant advancement in the concept of inherently safer design over the last 10 years. This overview highlights lessons learned and best practices in inherent safety.

    01/11/2010
  • Measurement of Oxygen Concentration in Blanketing and Inerting Operations

    Gaseous oxygen measurement with amperometric sensors is the most direct and easiest solution for oxidation and explosion protection.

    Unwelcome oxygen Tank blanketing is the process of filling the headspace in storage vessels and reactors with an inert gas to prevent its contents from exploding, degrading or polymerizing and to protect equipment from corrosion. A blanketing system is normally designed such that it operates under higher than atmospheric pressures, therefore preventing outside air from entering the vessel. As oxygen and moisture in the air can be undesired in numerous processes and applications, blanketing is done in a wide range of industries, varying from (petro)chemical to food and beverage, pharmaceutical to pure water.

    Mettler Toledo
    01/06/2010
  • Choosing the Right Emissions Control Option

    Determining the most economical option to control airborne emissions during chemical process operations presents several unique challenges. As with any add-on control system, the goal is to minimize the annualized total costs while maintaining proper operation. In this white paper, learn the different options that are available and which ones fit your process the best.

    Durr Systems Inc.
    10/19/2009
  • Closed System Technology Drives the Trend Toward Safer, More Cost-Efficient Chemical Dispensing

    In dozens of industries and in millions of applications around the world, dangerous chemicals are transferred from their original shipping containers into smaller jugs or buckets or applied to other end-use processes. Historically, the predominant dispensing method in many of these applications has been through an open system where the liquid is poured out of the container. With a poured system, the container is often flipped on its side and the liquid is poured into a secondary container. The user then just carries the bucket to wherever it needs to go. A mental image of this technique quickly reveals its potential dangers and inefficiencies.

    Colder Products Company
    02/13/2009
  • Environmental Health and Safety Compliance in Biotech Companies: Common Deficiencies Encountered During Audits

    Environmental health and safety (EH&S) compliance programs for companies that house laboratories are complex and not easily maintained. Even the most basic plan involves keeping a variety of permits up-to-date, performing regular employee training, conducting inspections, complying with a myriad of chemical storage and handling requirements, and keeping a number of contingency plans current and complete. This white paper identifies the most common pitfalls and four simple steps to keeping your EH&S program current.

    Environmental Health and Engineering
    09/11/2007
  • Guidance note for environmental safety instrumented systems

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are designed to monitor the process and control outputs to prevent or mitigate hazardous events. The design process strives for inherent safety, which is enhanced by applying multiple independent safety layers. Learn how to prevent accidents with prevention layers and minimise the consequences with mitigation layers.

    P & I Design
    05/26/2006
  • Chemical Hazard Communication

    Under the provisions of the Hazard Communication Standard, employers are responsible for informing employees of the hazards and the identities of workplace chemicals to which they are exposed.

    OSHA
    03/28/2006
  • The Regional Transport of Ozone

    EPA tracks emissions of six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. All have decreased significantly since passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970 - except for nitrogen oxides.

    EPA
    01/31/2006
  • Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance

    OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is based on a simple concept—that employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working.

    OSHA
    08/30/2005
  • Taking Toxics Out of the Air

    This 34-page PDF white paper discusses the technology and performance-based standards implemented by the EPA during the last 10 years and how they will assist in removing harmful toxins from the air.

    Enivironmental Protection Agency
    06/28/2005
  • Understand the hazards of flammable liquid spills

    This short paper discusses the risks of flash fires and pool fires from spills of flammable liquids, preventative measures, as well as how to avoid hazards during the clean up of such spills.

    Chilworth Technology
    12/09/2004
  • Continuous PHA Revalidation

    A process hazard analysis must be revalidated every five years. This paper discusses the merits of a new approach aimed at increasing the effectiveness of PHAs, called Continuous PHA revalidation.

    12/03/2004
  • Facility Major Risk Survey

    This 8-page primer describes a method for identification of major acute risks in existing process facilities that can potentially affect on-site and off-site populations and for prioritization of mitigation methods.

    ioMosaic
    12/02/2004
  • Relief Design for Reactive Systems – Get the Facts

    This 15-page paper focuses on the additional degrees of complexity that reactive systems pose for emergency relief systems. It covers topics such as how to screen for reactivity and what practices, standards and regulations should be followed, as well as a host of other issues.

    12/02/2004
  • Why Process Safety Management Audits Fail

    Most companies have completed at least three process safety management(PSM) compliance audits of their covered facilities since the promulgation of the OSHA PSM standard. These companies, however, are not seeing noticeable improvements in their PSM programs. In fact, many companies feel that their PSM programs have become less effective. What has happened and why? Are there any lessons learned from the Enron collapse and its auditing program? What needs to be done?

    ioMosaic
    10/22/2004
  • Risk-Based Process Safety Design

    Safe design has long been a priority in the process industries. A safe design basis, together with a formal safety management system and safety practices, procedures, and training, is critical for providing that level of confidence required for risk management. The goal of process safety management is to consistently reduce risk to a level that can be tolerated by all concerned. A systematic, risk-based approach to safety design can help eliminate hazards that pose intolerable risk from the process and mitigate the potential consequences of hazards.

    10/22/2004
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