The Regional Transport of Ozone
EPA tracks emissions of six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. All have decreased significantly since passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970 - except for nitrogen oxides.
Energy Efficiency - The Other Alternative Fuel
Proven methods for industry to reduce energy consumption and environmental impact are already at hand. These cost-effective solutions promise substantial return-on-investment now and in the future, without sacrificing performance or quality. For most companies and organizations, the answers to maintaining a competitive edge in this era of rising energy costs are readily available. By applying a suite of cost-effective power and automation solutions from technology leaders like ABB, these facilities can achieve substantial energy savings today without waiting for the "alternative fuels" of the future.
Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance
OSHAs Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is based on a simple conceptthat employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working.
Continuous PHA Revalidation
A process hazard analysis must be revalidated every five years. This paper discusses the merits of a new approach aimed at increasing the effectiveness of PHAs, called Continuous PHA revalidation.
Relief Design for Reactive Systems Get the Facts
This 15-page paper focuses on the additional degrees of complexity that reactive systems pose for emergency relief systems. It covers topics such as how to screen for reactivity and what practices, standards and regulations should be followed, as well as a host of other issues.
Why Process Safety Management Audits Fail
Most companies have completed at least three process safety management(PSM) compliance audits of their covered facilities since the promulgation of the OSHA PSM standard. These companies, however, are not seeing noticeable improvements in their PSM programs. In fact, many companies feel that their PSM programs have become less effective. What has happened and why? Are there any lessons learned from the Enron collapse and its auditing program? What needs to be done?
Risk-Based Process Safety Design
Safe design has long been a priority in the process industries. A safe design basis, together with a formal safety management system and safety practices, procedures, and training, is critical for providing that level of confidence required for risk management. The goal of process safety management is to consistently reduce risk to a level that can be tolerated by all concerned. A systematic, risk-based approach to safety design can help eliminate hazards that pose intolerable risk from the process and mitigate the potential consequences of hazards.
Understanding Regulated Health and Safety Standards--Part 1
This paper provides the viewpoint of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), a private not-for-profit, non-governmental corporation open to all industrial hygienists or other occupational health and safety professionals. The authors have the opinion that there are misunderstandings about the use of regulated health and safety standards.
In part one of this article, they provide some information on how regulations are formed and advice on using these values to conduct business. Employers and employees need this fundamental understanding to make informed health and safety decisions. This information is also useful for guiding public decisions about everyday toxic exposures.
Process Safety Management
This guide from the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration covers pre-startup safety review, mechanical integrity, how-work permits, management of change, incident investigation, emergency planning and response and compliance audits, among other topics.
Permit-Required Confined Spaces
This new U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration paper describes OHSA's confined-space satndard, and discusses how to meet it by controlling hazards, administering entry permits and assigning duties, as well as how to deal with emergencies and OSHA assistance available.