The use of spray nozzles to rapidly cool or quench gas streams is an essential application in many industrial processes, such as chemical reaction vessels, incineration, and power plant absorber gas inlet. An optimized spray quench design requires engineering analysis of the operating environment, spray nozzle performance and process reliability.
This technical paper describes the design considerations for spray gas quench systems such as nozzle selection, process control, system configuration and reliability. Application of this knowledge can result in a gas quench system that operates efficiently and reliably with reduced vessel size, reduced atomization energy consumption, and minimized downtime, to achieve capital and operational cost savings for your process.
In dozens of industries and in millions of applications around the world, dangerous chemicals are transferred from their original shipping containers into smaller jugs or buckets or applied to other end-use processes. Historically, the predominant dispensing method in many of these applications has been through an open system where the liquid is poured out of the container. With a poured system, the container is often flipped on its side and the liquid is poured into a secondary container.
The user then just carries the bucket to wherever it needs to go. A mental image of this technique quickly reveals its potential dangers and inefficiencies.
Liquid entrainment in a gas stream can be a disturbance in many industrial processes. In natural-gas processing, higher-order hydrocarbons, water or impurities have to be separated from the main methane stream. Upstream of gas compressors, droplets that can damage the impellers, have to be removed. With the recently acquired Knitmesh technology and the strategic alliance with Shell Global Solutions, Sulzer Chemtech can supply a broad portfolio of advanced, tailor-made systems for gas/liquid separation to customers in all industries.
Environmental health and safety (EH&S) compliance programs for companies that house laboratories are complex and not easily maintained. Even the most basic plan involves keeping a variety of permits up-to-date, performing regular employee training, conducting inspections, complying with a myriad of chemical storage and handling requirements, and keeping a number of contingency plans current and complete. This white paper identifies the most common pitfalls and four simple steps to keeping your EH&S program current.
This white paper outlines trends and opportunities for gasket standardization in processing plants ... including the potential for more reliable sealing, cost savings, inventory reduction, easier installation and safety practices. Steps are outlined for achieving success in gasket standardization across steel, glass-lined and FRP piping.
This white paper outlines trends and opportunities for gasket standardization in processing plants ... including steps outlining how to achieve gasket standardization across steel, glass-lined and FRP piping.
Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are designed to monitor the process and control outputs to prevent or mitigate hazardous events. The design process strives for inherent safety, which is enhanced by applying multiple independent safety layers. Learn how to prevent accidents with prevention layers and minimise the consequences with mitigation layers.
EPA tracks emissions of six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. All have decreased significantly since passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970 - except for nitrogen oxides.
OSHAs Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is based on a simple conceptthat employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working.
Given the amount of effort companies put into process safety management programs, it is important not only that they comply with regulations but that they are truly effective as well. This paper highspots points to check.
This 8-page primer describes a method for identification of major acute risks in existing process facilities that can potentially affect on-site and off-site populations and for prioritization of mitigation methods.
This 15-page paper discusses the approach that should be taken when using insulation on vessels containing reactive chemicals, including how to determine the required response time for a given insulation thickness. It provides a number of specific recommendations.
This 15-page paper focuses on the additional degrees of complexity that reactive systems pose for emergency relief systems. It covers topics such as how to screen for reactivity and what practices, standards and regulations should be followed, as well as a host of other issues.
Most companies have completed at least three process safety management(PSM) compliance audits of their covered facilities since the promulgation of the OSHA PSM standard. These companies, however, are not seeing noticeable improvements in their PSM programs. In fact, many companies feel that their PSM programs have become less effective. What has happened and why? Are there any lessons learned from the Enron collapse and its auditing program? What needs to be done?