Breakdown of organic wastes entering a wastewater treatment plant is accomplished by using a biomass or blend of beneficial microscopic organisms, bacteria, and solids. This converts the nonsettleable solids (dissolved and colloidal matter) into settleable solids, carbon dioxide, water, and energy. This paper reviews the most common stages for measuring and controlling dissolved oxygen in a wastewater treatment plant.
Energy consumption remains one of the largest controllable costs in oil refineries. Heat exchanger fouling can have a significant impact on energy efficiency and production loss. Asphaltene Precipitation is caused when refiners blend incompatible crudes. This is a major source of fouling and leads to performance limitations within days. Heat exchanger fouling is a major challenge for refinery operations. With the increase in crude blending from opportunity crudes such as tight oil, the traditional “manual” monitoring approach may no longer be effective. This White Paper discusses how on-line monitoring and analysis can enable refineries to:
Better Understand Accelerated Fouling Due to Crude Incompatibilities
Learn How to Use Online Monitoring to Detect Fouling
Powders developed to meet certain product performance targets often suffer from inconsistent and unpredictable flow. The reasons for this are many. A material's characteristics - adhesiveness, cohesiveness, aeratability, pressure-sensitivity - often change during processing and can cause flow problems to crop up. Couple this with changes in the processes themselves and costly downtime can be the result. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for overcoming powder processing challenges including:
Making the most of flow additives - understand their impact on overall powder behavior to optimize flow
Improving performance of gravimetric feeders - tips to avoid poor accuracy and frequent downtime
Protecting against combustible dust explosion - economical approaches for protecting spray dryer processes and solutions
Make the most of your powder processes. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
Corrosion, leak detection and mitigation, flow pressure and volume are all factors that maintenance managers and other decision makers need to contend with as they manage flow at their chemical processing plants. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we delve in to solutions and strategies for managing these challenges including:
Leak management - treat them as calls for action against the underlying problem
VFDs for centrifugal pumps - such drives may provide energy savings and avoid operating problems
Dealing with corrosion - piping made of high-performance plastic provides unmatched performance and longevity
Ceramic in electromagnetic flow meters - material used for measuring tubes offers high performance, longevity and a host of other benefits
Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.
Chemical plants vary widely in size and complexity yet share common goals for maximizing efficiency safely and cost effectively. This Chemical Processing Special Report tackles two areas in chemical processing - compressed air systems and powder handling - where gains can be achieved for improving efficiency. We also address the concerns of safety as it relates to drying compressed air in hazardous atmospheres.
Whether compressed air systems are centrifugal, rotary screw, reciprocating compressors or a combination, this Special Report provides and understanding of what’s involved in getting a suitable supply of compressed air.
Efficient powder handling can be achieved through optimized humidity management.
Medium voltage variable frequency drives (VFDs) are often the best choice to capitalize on opportunities to significantly reduce the operating and maintenance costs associated with relatively large rotating equipment. Even a seemingly modest energy savings of a few percent of the operating load can translate into significant energy savings. In this special report we take a look at how to make the most of VFDs: how optimum performance depends upon proper installation and control; how controlling the speed of VFDs can help eliminate waste and promote efficiency, reliability and quality and; considerations for changing drive speed over pumps. Download now.
Synthesized is used in a variety of applications. The construction industry uses it as the primary ingredient in drywall, and as a setting inhibitor in Portland cement. The property of Gypsum that makes it valuable as a fire retardant in construction materials is also what makes it a good candidate for Loss on Drying analysis.
In recent years, TOC analysis has become accepted in the industry as the standard method and the only reliable online method used to determine contamination in waters, to control processes, to prevent product losses and to minimize waste. It is especially important to monitor this parameter in applications such as condensate return water, boiler/feed water, etc. In boiler/feed water and in industrial steam generating systems, carbonic acid corrosion of condensate lines is often a serious problem. Depending on the application type, analysis of only one parameter (e.g., TC) is generally not sufficient to make any useful process decisions. Multiple-parameter analysis (TOC, TC, TIC, VOC etc.), as carried out in the Hach BioTector B3500c analyzer, is proven to be more useful and always superior to single-parameter analysis in the industry.
Download the white paper to receive information on maximizing the performance of your gravimetric feeder. You will receive tips on how to choose and set up the right feeder for the specific material being fed in your process. Handling free flowing, adhesive, cohesive, aeratable, hygroscopic and pressure sensitive materials plus ways on where and how to properly install a gravimetric feeder are discussed.
Solid-liquid separation is an instrumental part of chemical processing. To separate the solid particles, filter media made of textile or metallic materials and of composite materials are used as the basis for the filter cake. Often there will also be a washing process to improve the purity of the filter cake or to increase the yield of the liquid phase. Solid-liquid separation can be carried out in continuous or batch operation. There are many factors for selecting the right process filtration system for your specific application. This white paper reviews methods for identifying the right process filtration technology for your application and highlights case studies illustrating the methods discussed.
The most commonly used compound in the chemical industry is water – not only as a solvent in processing, but also as an energy carrier in the cooling or heating cycle. As vast amounts of water are needed, chemical industries are often located close to large bodies of flowing water. Water used as processing or cooling water is cleaned and subsequently led back to the river or stream. For environmental protection, these waters are subject to specific control and monitoring measures. As the total organic carbon (TOC) non-specifically detects all organic compounds, this parameter has proven to be invaluable here. This booklet introduces a variety of industry-specific applications, and how Shimadzu can provide TOC analyzers to meet specific chemical application needs.
A material’s characteristics and how they may change during processing can affect HOW these materials are processed. Key factors affecting powders include aeration, moisture absorption, electrostatic charging to name a few. Many bulk solids are sensitive to heat and humidity. As these levels rise, either in the feeder system or via outside conditions, flow problems crop up. As the powder gains strength, jams and poor flow conditions begin to appear. Costly downtime and a loss of product are incurred while a search is made for a solution to the flow problems. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key factors affecting powders and today’s best practices for overcoming the processing of powders including:
Looking beyond the physical properties of particles and treating powder as a bulk entity
How scanners take volume to a new level - acoustics-based sensors can help accurately measure the volume of powders in vessels
How to determine a coating’s volatile content - advancements in rapid loss-on-drying techniques significantly reduce testing time
Testing powder flow - advances in test methods help better predict flow behavior at elevated temperature and humidity levels
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
Chemical processors continually strive to find technologies and solutions for improving flow. Issues related to physical properties, process parameters, electronic features and interconnections can all affect the flow of liquids and gases. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we take a look at what it take a look at several different flow challenges and considerations to overcome these challenges including:
Split flow - ensuring proper control of parallel flow paths demands care
Positive displacement pumps - how some units offer advantages over centrifugal pumps in some services
How to increase process availability - using Coriolis mass flowmeters provides reliable indication of gas entrainment
Find out how to master flow challenges. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.
Combustible dust explosions are a risk in many areas of a chemical plant. Are you in compliance? This white paper reviews the OSHA NEP for combustible dust, NFPA standards on explosion hazards, equipment used for explosion protection, and how to avoid the most common shortfalls to compliance.
Chemical facilities are under mounting pressure to process ever larger quantities of wastewater to increasingly higher standards while staying within a variety of cost constraints. Plant operators face the dilemma of how to maintain treatment throughput at reasonable cost even when the plant reaches design capacity. Potential changes to production mixes can compound the challenge. Fortunately, adopting the latest wastewater-treatment technology can inject new life into a plant, extending useful asset life without heavy upfront capital investment. In this Chemical Processing Wastewater eHandbook we take a look at how to boost wastewater improvement efforts including:
An exploration of an innovative system that enables wastewater capacity expansion
Why chemical makers are increasingly focusing on water-related risks and opportunities
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Wastewater eHandbook now.
The unfortunate propensity of dust explosions to destroy entire facilities and claim lives is very real. Powder handling processes often are comprised of interconnected enclosures and equipment. Flame and pressure resulting from a dust explosion can therefore propagate through piping, across galleries, and reach other pieces of equipment or enclosures, leading to extensive damage. In this Chemical Processing Special Report, we take a look at the latest NFPA standards and dust explosion mitigation strategies. This Special Report covers:
Significant revisions to dust explosion standards – NFPA 654 major changes include new administrative requirements
How to defuse dust dangers - carefully consider and then counter risks of fire and explosion
Five common dust explosion misconceptions that can lead to a false sense of security
Prepare your facility against potential dust explosion dangers. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Special Report now.
In the decade before Stuxnet attacked process control systems in Iran, there were just five known supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) vulnerabilities for all control systems in the world, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT). In 2011, the year after Stuxnet, that vulnerability count jumped to more than 215. Last year, it reached 248 (Figure 1). No surprise then that Chemical makers are increasingly focusing on protecting their process control systems from intrusion both from the inside and outside. In this Chemical Processing Special Report: Secure plan(t), we take a look at:
How to better protect your control system - “Defense in depth” is crucial, and new and maturing technologies may help
Cyber Security Challenges – learn about countermeasures to protect control systems
Case Study: A vulnerability assessment reveals critical gaps in the security of a natural gas pipeline
How to mitigate security risks in legacy process control systems - several steps can help protect against threats and extend the life of legacy equipment
Learn how to secure your process control systems – and your plant. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Special Report: Secure plan(t) now.
Tank cleaning has always been viewed as a necessary evil for manufacturers. During the cleaning process, a significant amount of resources (time, chemicals, water, electric and labor) is required between batches to ensure a reliable, uncontaminated, quality batch is produced. Although these repeating expenditures have a significant effect on the bottom line, many chemical manufacturers continue to rely on outdated processing for cleaning, not realizing the potential opportunity for substantial cost reductions and revenue recovery through CIP optimization.This whitepaper includes specific case studies on the benefits of rotary impingement and CIP optimization vs. the standard tank cleaning processes. These benefits include drastic savings in time and water usage as well as employee safety.
Rising fuel costs have a direct impact on a chemical processors’ bottom line. How can chemical processors reduce their energy consumption thus reducing their cost to produce? It’s believed that the chemical industry potentially can vastly decrease energy use AND greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the help of game-changing technology and strong support from policymakers. In this Chemical Processing Energy eHandbook, we take a look at global, and more local, technologies and strategies for improving energy efficiency at chemical plants including:
A roadmap that aims to catalyze better energy efficiency – learn about a international initiative that foresees catalytic processes playing a key role in cutting consumption and emissions
Saving energy by optimizing boiler loads
How the right emission control system can help meet compliance and reduce energy costs
Steam injection heating systems
Learn how improve your plants energy efficiency. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Energy eHandbook now.
The mechanisms of powder flow are complex. They are influenced by an array of different parameters; some relate to the particles’ physical attributes, such as size and shape, and others, such as humidity, to the system itself. Although there is a general understanding of these individual mechanisms, the multitude of interactions that govern the specific behavior of a given powder can many and in turn, affect how these powders are processed. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at technologies and strategies for handling powders including:
How to Optimize Humidity for Efficient Powder Handling - too much or too little moisture can cause problems during processing and storage
How to Select the Right Conveying and Feeding System - successful bulk handling of calcium carbonate depends on a variety of factors
Suppressing Explosions for Process Protection - A properly designed and engineered suppression system offers many advantages
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.