Process Engineering White Papers

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  • Passive techniques for reducing input current harmonics

    Harmonics can have a detrimental effect on power generators and other sensitive electrical equipment for the user and utility alike. The number of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) has increased significantly in the past decade. Their contribution to the total electrical load of a power system is significant and cannot be neglected. This white paper discusses various passive techniques for reducing input current harmonics.

    Yaskawa Electric America, Inc.
  • Rectifier design for fuel ethanol plants reduces energy

    Plants have traditionally used trays in the distillation columns to produce fuels grade ethanol. Trays of various configurations have been adequate in this service and their technology is well founded. The ever-present desire to reduce the energy needed to produce a gallon of ethanol has opened the doors to structured packings being used in the rectification sections of ethanol distillation columns.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA
  • Biodiesel Fuel From Palm Oil – Too Good to be Used as Fuel?

    The high prices for oil and gas have spotlighted other sources of fuel for internal combustion engines. Biofuel, a fuel derived from ethanol, and biodiesel fuel, a dieselequivalent derived from biological sources, are two possible substitutes for petrochemical fuel.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA, Inc.
  • Managing Complex Equipment Status in a GMP Environment

    Batch manufacturing systems must maintain the status of equipment, including which are available, dirty, out of service, etc. In industries that enforce Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), additional status types and values for process equipment must be maintained. Rules associated with the equipment status can be complex and involve the equipment class, current equipment state and time in the current state. This paper covers the operator interface used to review the equipment status and the interlocking requirements between the recipe and batch phases based on multiple status types.

  • Guidance note for environmental safety instrumented systems

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are designed to monitor the process and control outputs to prevent or mitigate hazardous events. The design process strives for inherent safety, which is enhanced by applying multiple independent safety layers. Learn how to prevent accidents with prevention layers and minimise the consequences with mitigation layers.

    P & I Design
  • De-bottlenecking A De-iso-butanizer With VG-Plus High Performance Trays

    To maximize a plant’s performance, it is critical to fully understand the equipment being used, their mechanisms of operation, limitations and capabilities. This includes furnaces, exchangers, pumps, and mass transfer devices for distillation columns: fractionation trays, random and structured packing and associated liquid and vapor distributors. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the key factors to successfully revamp with the goal of maximizing capacity without compromising efficiency.

  • Chemical Hazard Communication

    Under the provisions of the Hazard Communication Standard, employers are responsible for informing employees of the hazards and the identities of workplace chemicals to which they are exposed.

  • The Regional Transport of Ozone

    EPA tracks emissions of six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. All have decreased significantly since passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970 - except for nitrogen oxides.

  • Clean Compressed Air

    Good air preparation should consider the energy consumption of the system and air treatment equipment.

  • Energy Efficiency - The Other Alternative Fuel

    Proven methods for industry to reduce energy consumption and environmental impact are already at hand. These cost-effective solutions promise substantial return-on-investment now and in the future, without sacrificing performance or quality. For most companies and organizations, the answers to maintaining a competitive edge in this era of rising energy costs are readily available. By applying a suite of cost-effective power and automation solutions from technology leaders like ABB, these facilities can achieve substantial energy savings today without waiting for the "alternative fuels" of the future.

  • Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance

    OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is based on a simple concept—that employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working.

  • Taking Toxics Out of the Air

    This 34-page PDF white paper discusses the technology and performance-based standards implemented by the EPA during the last 10 years and how they will assist in removing harmful toxins from the air.

    Enivironmental Protection Agency
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