During industrial manufacturing, many companies use a wide variety of chemicals from methanol, acetone and benzene to foodstuffs like wine and edible oils stored in large tanks at different points in the manufacturing process. In a technique called “chemical tank blanketing,” or “padding” nitrogen is commonly applied to protect chemicals stored in tanks against contamination, degradation or chemical change as well as to prevent fire or explosions. This white paper first discusses blanketing basics and benefits. It reviews considerations for tank blanketing systems and discusses a newer approach, which is typically more cost effective for most applications, is that of generating nitrogen on-demand in the plant itself.
Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) more commonly known as gypsum is a naturally occurring white crystalline mineral that has many different uses and applications. Gypsum in its hydrated form (CaSO4•2H2O) is used in the construction industry for fire resistance in buildings. Outside of the construction industry, gypsum is used in the food and fertilizer industry for calcium and sulfate fortification respectively. When gypsum is no longer usable, it is deposited in construction and demolition(C&D) landfills where anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions and the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria promote the decomposition of wallboard/gypsum into hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Due to local and state regulations on odor control, these C&D sites monitor their fill for hydrogen sulfide gas. This paper will couple two methods of analysis to observe the relationship between the purity of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) and hydrogen sulfide concentration as a sample is fermented by sulfate-reducing agents (e.g. bacteria). The scope of this research may be beneficial for industrial hygienists concerned with C&D landfill H2S levels or for incoming gypsum processing plants who suspect poor quality gypsum.
The debate over the virtues of DCS vs. PLC has been ongoing since these two architectures came into existence 40 years ago. For certain industries, a distributed control system (DCS) provides substantially more value as the basis for automating the plant than a programmable logic controller (PLC)-based system. As functionality differences narrow and price points align, the debate over these virtues is getting more intense and the arguments for and against each system are getting more and more murky. This white paper discusses the “Top Ten” issues to consider when evaluating a DCS vs. building your own “DIY” distributed control system using a PLC-based architecture.
Corrosion, leak detection and mitigation, flow pressure and volume are all factors that maintenance managers and other decision makers need to contend with as they manage flow at their chemical processing plants. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we delve in to solutions and strategies for managing these challenges including:
Leak management - treat them as calls for action against the underlying problem
VFDs for centrifugal pumps - such drives may provide energy savings and avoid operating problems
Dealing with corrosion - piping made of high-performance plastic provides unmatched performance and longevity
Ceramic in electromagnetic flow meters - material used for measuring tubes offers high performance, longevity and a host of other benefits
Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.
Chemical Processing Special Report: Secure plan(t)
In the decade before Stuxnet attacked process control systems in Iran, there were just five known supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) vulnerabilities for all control systems in the world, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT). In 2011, the year after Stuxnet, that vulnerability count jumped to more than 215. Last year, it reached 248 (Figure 1). No surprise then that Chemical makers are increasingly focusing on protecting their process control systems from intrusion both from the inside and outside. In this Chemical Processing Special Report: Secure plan(t), we take a look at:
How to better protect your control system - “Defense in depth” is crucial, and new and maturing technologies may help
Cyber Security Challenges – learn about countermeasures to protect control systems
Case Study: A vulnerability assessment reveals critical gaps in the security of a natural gas pipeline
How to mitigate security risks in legacy process control systems - several steps can help protect against threats and extend the life of legacy equipment
Learn how to secure your process control systems – and your plant. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Special Report: Secure plan(t) now.
Save Money, Time, and Water With Rotary Impingement Tank Cleaning
Tank cleaning has always been viewed as a necessary evil for manufacturers. During the cleaning process, a significant amount of resources (time, chemicals, water, electric and labor) is required between batches to ensure a reliable, uncontaminated, quality batch is produced. Although these repeating expenditures have a significant effect on the bottom line, many chemical manufacturers continue to rely on outdated processing for cleaning, not realizing the potential opportunity for substantial cost reductions and revenue recovery through CIP optimization.This whitepaper includes specific case studies on the benefits of rotary impingement and CIP optimization vs. the standard tank cleaning processes. These benefits include drastic savings in time and water usage as well as employee safety.
Five Keys to Avoiding Ethylene Valve Failures
This concise, compelling overview of best practices in purchasing and maintaining ethylene valve packages is an essential read for industry professionals. The white paper will tell you how to: 1) Select the right seats and seals; 2) Select the right coating materials; 3) Know the quality of the valves you're buying; 4) Find a trusted single resource for your valve package purchases; 5) Keep up with required maintenance.
Special Report: Making the Most of Migration
Perhaps the most critical challenge facing the automation industry is that of aging control systems at or near the end of their product lifecycles. A legacy control system can suffer from technical, functional or supply obsolescence. With a well-planned and executed control system migration, however, plants can improve availability and reliability, while increasing production flexibility. In this Chemical Processing Special Report: Making the Most of Migration, we take a look at: Obsolescence planning – addressing concerns and planning for a successful evolution strategy; Restoration Possibilities – how new tools and innovative methods support and breath new life into aging distributed control systems; DCS Migration; More!
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Special Report: Making the Most of Migration now!
Bristol-Myers Squibb Works hard to be a Good Neighbor
Bristol-Myers Squibb manually monitored dissolved oxygen (DO) periodically and ran aeration blowers more than necessary to guard against variable loading rates. After upgrading the system to use online DO monitoring operators now have continuous DO readings in the aeration tanks, substantially reducing energy and maintenance costs.
OPC: The Ins and Outs to What it’s About, The Every Man's Guide to OPC
The Every Man’s Guide to OPC is an easy-to-read overview of the most popular industrial open connectivity standard - OPC. This paper introduces the main idea behind OPC, shows why OPC is different from conventional (often proprietary) communication protocols, and explains how OPC helps overcome the limitations of such native protocols. Next, the paper explains what the building blocks of OPC are (OPC Clients and OPC Servers) and how they work together to make data-sharing possible.
This guide to OPC helps readers of all technical levels quickly grasp what OPC is and how they can use it.
Building Productivity Automating Time and Attendance in Manufacturing
Manufacturing organizations face a critical balancing act – achieving the highest levels of efficiency, while ensuring that they are not over or under supplying the marketplace.
This need to be flexible and efficient requires exceptional visibility into all of the factors that influence productivity and output. This white paper will look at the challenges manufacturing organizations face and how automation of key workforce management processes helps manufacturers not only improve efficiency, but also better manage labor spend, reduce compliance risk and improve productivity.
How to Reduce Tank Cleaning Time (And Lost Time) with Water Jets
Automated water jetting removes hardened deposits from tanks and reactors quickly and thoroughly, saving hours of downtime and getting tanks back into service sooner. A new white paper explains high-pressure water jetting, introduces typical equipment, and compares the process with other methods.
Whitepaper: On-Line Instrumentation Helps Lower DAF System Costs
Many industrial plants use dissolved air flotation to remove fats, oils and grease, and suspended solids from wastewater. Chemical additions are often kept higher than necessary to account for variations in influent water quality that are characteristic of industrial facilities. Continuous monitor
Integrating Process Weighing Data
Efficient transfer of weighing process data to higher level PLC, MES or ERP systems makes manufacturing processes more efficient and more transparent. But identifying and implementing the most effective system for data transfer and integration can be challenging.
For chemical processors, changing process conditions demand quick responses in order to keep processing effective and to keep processes running properly. For processes undergoing such changes, accurate and timely measurements, such as vibration monitoring, redundant tank level measurement and steam header temperature profiling can be difficult to collect. In well-established plants it’s both very expensive and time consuming to get measurement points online using conventional wired instrumentation. Many processors are now turning to wireless devices that can supply data from numerous points that never could have been justified otherwise. In this Chemical Processing Wireless eHandbook we take a look at wireless technology solution successes:
** How installing a wireless pH analyzer for crucial insights on seal integrity provided Fuji Film with a low-cost monitoring solution for protecting a pricey pump ** How one of the world’s largest producers of chlorine, caustic soda and vinyl chloride embraced wireless technology and achieved operating economies and more efficient control of its chemical processes ** More!
Reliability programs are now standard business practice in companies that rely heavily on machines, equipment and other physical assets. But, in today’s lean economy, companies have fewer resources than ever to manage and maintain these assets. Plants face challenges in identifying new and cost-effective ways to ensure their assets are performing and that they are managing to minimize operational risks. In this Chemical Processing Reliability/Asset Management eHandbook we take a look at proactive approaches for improving reliability and maintenance in today’s processing plant including:
• Equipment rotation: identify damaged and worn components before they cause problems • Backflush strategies: flow reversal can remove fiber buildup in heat exchangers • Advanced Reliability Management: key steps for leveraging limited resources and critical assets • Predictive Maintenance: detailed analysis of maintenance records can further improve equipment reliability • More!
No More Risky Business With Virtual Patching
Patching process control system software to remove security vulnerabilities is fraught with risk. System issues can be the result of installing a patch, but a system is also vulnerable without patching. Fortunately, virtual patching can improve the process and raise the system’s security at the same time.
Cyber Security: A Perfect Storm
As companies and industries increasingly rely on technology, security risks become greater. With growing numbers of Windows machines and increased scarcity of skilled technical resources, a “perfect storm” of cyber threats in production facilities is looming.