Process Engineering White Papers

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  • Design Tips for Admittance Probes

    This white paper from Delta Controls outlines a range of selection and installation criteria for using admittance probes to monitor the level of powders, liquids and other materials. Dielectric constants of more than 200 common industrial materials are included.

  • Design the Heat-Transfer-System Expansion Tank Right

    The design of the expansion tank plays an important role in the successful operation of a heat transfer system using organic fluids. It can contribute to longer fluid life and lower maintenance. This paper describes the proper sizing, piping and valving, instrumenting, and inerting of the tank.

  • Design Guidelines for Distillation Columns in Fouling Service

    This 33-page paper discusses the wide variety of factors that can cause fouling and the impact of this fouling on the performance of a distillation column. It then provides details on practical methods for mitigating fouling, including equipment design, surface treatment, and use of additives.

  • Design Guidelines for Distillation Columns in Fouling Service

    This 33-page paper discusses the wide variety of factors that can cause fouling and the impact of this fouling on the performance of a distillation column. It then provides details on practical methods for mitigating fouling, including equipment design, surface treatment, and use of additives.

  • Design Considerations for High Liquid Rate Tray Applications

    Except for a few odd services, high liquid rate applications are typically the domain of either trays or random packings. Aside from the distributors, random packing designs are rather straightforward with the designer choosing the proper size to accommodate the fluid flow rates and achieve the desired efficiency. Trays, on the other hand, have a large variety of adjustable parameters and can be especially complex, especially when designed for high liquid rate applications.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA, Inc.
  • De-bottlenecking A De-iso-butanizer With VG-Plus High Performance Trays

    To maximize a plant’s performance, it is critical to fully understand the equipment being used, their mechanisms of operation, limitations and capabilities. This includes furnaces, exchangers, pumps, and mass transfer devices for distillation columns: fractionation trays, random and structured packing and associated liquid and vapor distributors. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the key factors to successfully revamp with the goal of maximizing capacity without compromising efficiency.

  • Dangers Lie in the Dust - A Chemical Processing Special Report

    The dangers posed by combustible dusts are no longer being swept under the rug. Tougher regulations and greater corporate resolve are making dust hazard management an increasingly important topic for every manufacturing sector including the chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. This Special Report, brought to you by Chemical Processing details the dangers posed by combustible dusts and includes: the latest thinking on both hazard identification and mitigation; it identifies how to mitigate dust hazards in oral solid dosage facilities; it takes an in-depth look at regulations and the thinking behind suppression technologies as a result of past activity; more!

  • Cybersecurity: Power Industry Locks Down

    The power industry is susceptible to a variety of cyber threats, which can wreak havoc on control systems. Management, engineering and IT must commit to a comprehensive approach that encompasses threat prevention, detection and elimination.

    Power Engineering
  • Cyber Security: A Perfect Storm

    As companies and industries increasingly rely on technology, security risks become greater. With growing numbers of Windows machines and increased scarcity of skilled technical resources, a “perfect storm” of cyber threats in production facilities is looming.

  • CP Special Report: Improving Plant Efficiency and Safety

    Sponsored By: Parker

    Chemical plants vary widely in size and complexity yet share common goals for maximizing efficiency safely and cost effectively. This Chemical Processing Special Report tackles two areas in chemical processing - compressed air systems and powder handling - where gains can be achieved for improving efficiency. We also address the concerns of safety as it relates to drying compressed air in hazardous atmospheres.
    Key takeaways:

    • Whether compressed air systems are centrifugal, rotary screw, reciprocating compressors or a combination, this Special Report provides and understanding of what’s involved in getting a suitable supply of compressed air.
    • Efficient powder handling can be achieved through optimized humidity management.
    • Safe drying practices in hazardous air locations

  • CP Special Report: Hardware Safety

    The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard [29 CFR 1910.119(j)] require plant management to identify and address hazards. Further challenging plant management, the mechanical integrity (MI) element of the PSM has been difficult for many facilities to implement. In fact, PSM audits by OSHA have consistently demonstrated that MI accounts for a large number of citations at most facilities. In this Chemical Processing Special Report, we take a look at how to effectively implement strategies to comply with PSM standards including:
    • Common piping, hoses and valves hazards – what PHA (Process Handling Analysis) teams should look for to improve the quality of the hazard evaluation
    • MI element of PSM – an in-depth look at the stated MI requirements, the perceived interpretation of these requirements and further considerations for identifying your plant’s compliance strategy
    • MI implications – the impact MI has on plant’s written procedures, training, inspection & testing, and how equipment deficiencies and quality assurance programs are managed

    Continental Disc Corp.
  • CP Reliability eHandbook: Manage Your Assets

    Reliability programs are now standard business practice in companies that rely heavily on machines, equipment and other physical assets. However, plants are continually challenged in identifying new and cost-effective ways to ensure their assets are performing and that they are managing to minimize operational risks. In this Chemical Processing Reliability eHandbook we take a look at proactive approaches for improving reliability and maintenance in today’s processing plant including:

    • Rotating equipment - how to take advantage of improved internals and better seals
    • Meeting process requirements and protecting equipment with strainers
    • Insights from surface temperature measurements and the critical role IR thermography is to maintenance

    Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Reliability eHandbook now.

  • CP Powder eHandbook: Tips for Effective and Safe Handling of Solids

    One of the trickiest materials to process, solids are comprised of powders or particulates, a continuous gaseous phase (usually air) and, almost always, a liquid component. Processors that handle solids know only too well the types of throughput problems that come up on a recurring basis. Effective, economical and safe slurry management; flowability during processing, accurate inventory and volume level management are all very real challenges faced by processors of solids. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at how to effectively handle solids including:
    • Properly accounting for how bulk solids actually will flow in a vessel or overall process -- we take a look at some simple parameters that can often provide a good sense of flowability
    • Strategies for avoiding slurry trouble
    • Mitigating pipe segment force imbalances with Reactor Excursion and Leakage Analysis Program
    • Acoustics-based level measurement for accurate powder measurement in bins, tanks and silos
    • Explosion protection methods including suppression, isolation and venting

  • CP Powder eHandbook: Effective Powder Processing

    As many chemical processors know, processing powders can be tricky. Powder properties can be affected if the materials are stored for long periods. Powders can be compressed, vibrated, aerated and exposed to moisture. And specific processes like granulation, blending, drying, milling, lubricating and compression put requirements on how powders can be handled. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at how to effectively process powder including:
    • Compression dryers – the case for choosing a solution that produces optimal air quality and low energy consumption
    • GHS – understanding the requirements and what it means to chemicals processors
    • Predicting powder flow behavior
    • Vibratory screen cleaning methods
    • Fine powder flushing - eliminating a common bin-afflicting problem caused by trapped air
    • Tubular Drag Conveying Technology – an alternative to pneumatic conveying
    • Addressing dust hazards – including explosions

  • CP eHandbook: Wireless - Plants Benefit from Wireless Technology

    For chemical processors, changing process conditions demand quick responses in order to keep processing effective and to keep processes running properly. For processes undergoing such changes, accurate and timely measurements, such as vibration monitoring, redundant tank level measurement and steam header temperature profiling can be difficult to collect. In well-established plants it’s both very expensive and time consuming to get measurement points online using conventional wired instrumentation. Many processors are now turning to wireless devices that can supply data from numerous points that never could have been justified otherwise. In this Chemical Processing Wireless eHandbook we take a look at wireless technology solution successes:
    ** How installing a wireless pH analyzer for crucial insights on seal integrity provided Fuji Film with a low-cost monitoring solution for protecting a pricey pump
    ** How one of the world’s largest producers of chlorine, caustic soda and vinyl chloride embraced wireless technology and achieved operating economies and more efficient control of its chemical processes
    ** More!

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