Process Engineering White Papers

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  • Flow eHandbook: Foil Fluid Fiascoes

    This Chemical Processing eHandbook examines some of today’s Flow challenges for chemical manufacturers and offers solutions that can be implemented to help make your operations run more smoothly .

    Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:

    • Pick the Proper Valve: Consider a number of factors to match a valve to the application.
    • Quickly Estimate Reagent Addition Time: A simple equation suffices in many situations involving batch reactors.
    • Choose the Right Flow Measurement Technology: Answering a few key questions can determine the right device for a specific application
    • Ponder Using Press Fittings: Case study shows how press fittings speed installation and can withstand harsh environments and materials.
    • More!

    Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.

    10/12/2016
  • CP Flow eHandbook: Make the Right Choice

    Is figuring out how to choose the proper pump, pick the proper flow meter or select the correct rupture discs keeping you awake at night? Do you want some guidance on how to make these decisions?

    This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are making the right selections. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and information on:

    • Defeat A Double Whammy: Select the proper pump to handle low suctions head and cavitation.
    • Pick the Proper Flow Meter: Consider a wide range of factors to determine the optimal choice.
    • Choose Rupture Discs Wisely: Selecting the correct pressure relief method and configuration depends on a variety of factors.
    • More!

    Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.

    07/13/2016
  • How Signal-to-Noise Ratio Impacts Guided Wave Radar Performance

    Guided wave radar (GWR) technology has been used successfully in industrial applications for over a decade. But not all applications are created equal. There are many factors that determine whether a GWR transmitter will perform well in a given application. One especially significant factor is the difference between the desired signal from a level surface and unwanted reflections that interfere with this signal, known as “signal-to-noise ratio.” Learn how signal-to-noise ratio can impact the performance of GWR transmitters.
    Download the white paper now.

    Magnetrol
    05/03/2016
  • Chemical Processing eHandbook: Foil Flow Failings

    This Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, Foil Flow Failings, takes a look at how manufacturers are meeting some of today’s flow system challenges. Are you faced with the challenge of understanding when to use piston and diaphragm devices for precise liquid dosing? Do nozzle nightmares keep you awake at night? Do you know the best possible options for sidestripper control? Do you want to learn more from a case study on specialty lubricants and press-fitting technology?

    Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook now for insights and strategies including:

    • Mastering Meter Pumps: Understand when to use piston and diaphragm devices for precise liquid dosing
    • Nix Nozzle Nightmares: Don’t forget to check nozzle locations when altering towers
    • Carefully Consider Sidestripper Control: Analysis of three possible options provides important insights
    • Case Study: A producer of specialty lubricants speeds pipe installation using press-fitting technology

    Download your copy of the Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook: Foil Flow Failings

    04/13/2016
  • Flow eHandbook: Achieve Better Flow

    Achieving better flow is a constant challenge for chemical processors. What happens when a liquid flashes? How do you consider the impact of inlet losses? How can you become more innovative using speed pipe installation?

    This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting these challenges head on. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:

    • Watch Out for Two-Phase Flow where process performance can suffer dramatically when a liquid flashes;
    • Nix Nozzle Nuisances and avoid flow problems by considering the impact of inlet losses;
    • Case Study: Speed Pipe Installation - VIP PLUMBING of Cleveland, Ohio, used press fittings to make water- and air-tight connections when installing a stainless system at Royal Chemical's Macedonia, Ohio plant;
    • More!

    Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.

    10/27/2015
  • Wastewater eHandbook: Avoid the Whirlpool

    Today’s global challenges — climate change, water scarcity, food provision, declining ecosystem services, human development, and the overall transition to a sustainable society and planet — require solutions of unprecedented scale. Public policy and behavior change will play a significant role in addressing these challenges. So, too, will business and technology. In the decades ahead, these challenges offer tremendous opportunity for organizations that can contribute to tackling them.

    This Chemical Processing eHandbook takes a look at how chemicals manufacturers are meeting these challenges head on. Download this Chemical Processing eHandbook for insights and strategies including:

    • How organizations such as Dow, Solvay, Dupont and BP are adapting strategies for their water conservation efforts;
    • How a new purification process that’s carbon-negative and energy-positive can save energy;
    • Why sustainability metrics spur product development efforts to improve conservation efforts
    • More!

    Download the eHandbook now.

    09/16/2015
  • Mixing eHandbook: Avoid Mixing Mix-Ups

    For chemical processors, ensuring a long-lasting, high-quality mix is a huge challenge regardless of the physical properties of the mixing component – liquid, gas, solid. In this Chemical Processing Mixing eHandbook, we take a look at mixing technologies including “open” batch operation, static mixers, hydrogenation and inline mixing. Understanding how each of these technologies works, the benefits and challenges can help you to avoid common mixing mix-ups. Download your copy and learn about:

    • A number of technologies that can handle pipeline mixing
    • How hydrogenation reactions can achieve greater conversion rates and thus better space/time yields
    • Continuous powder wetting
    • Inline mixing systems
    • Modern in-line mixers

    Avoid common mixing mix-ups. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Mixing eHandbook now.

    08/26/2015
  • eHandbook: Leverage These Level Best Practices

    Level measurement, which is the detection of the phase split between vapor/liquid, liquid/liquid, vapor/solid and even liquid/solid, is a key parameter in the operation and control of modern industrial processes. A reliable outcome depends on the phase conditions being relatively consistent under all process conditions. Unfortunately, the importance of level control isn’t always understood. In this Chemical Processing Level Instrumentation eHandbook, we discuss best practices for level management including:

    • Interpret Level Readings Right – how the type of instrument can make a big difference in deciphering measurements
    • Choose the Correct Level Sensor – key considerations and questions for identifying the most appropriate choice
    • Customize Your Level Detection – a myriad of options help you achieve optimal level indicator performance

    Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Level Instrumentation eHandbook now.

    08/12/2015
  • Flow eHandbook: Better Manage Flow

    It’s not uncommon for chemical processors to have hundreds of piping and flow instruments to monitor, maintain and repair. When do you slope a process line? What happens when a precision instrument drifts out of calibration? In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we look at what it takes for chemical processors to master flow challenges in several areas including:

    • Piping geometry – how draining, venting, fouling and other considerations affect piping geometry
    • Various methods for avoiding thermal flow meter validation pitfalls
    • Piping symmetry – why designers should consider the impact of unequal flows in branches

    Learn more how to avoid common piping pitfalls. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.

    07/29/2015
  • Loss-On-Drying vs. Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Thermogravimetric analyzers (TGAs) deliver valuable information about a material’s response to temperature. But while the information they deliver is critical, TGAs themselves tend to be bulky and difficult to use, and can cost tens of thousands of dollars. This paper explores how you can gather the same data as a TGA using an instrument which is considerably easier to use, more durable, and less expensive: the Computrac MAX 5000XL. The materials examined in this paper are certain flue gas desulfurization byproducts—gypsum, calcium sulfite hemihydrate, and calcium hydroxide—but the principles in question can apply to all manner of materials, from biofuels to pet food to landfill waste.


    Download the white paper now.

    AZI
    05/12/2015
  • Optical System Sets New Standards in Oxygen Measurements

    Optical Dissolved Oxygen Measurement in Power and Boiler Applications

    Over the past decade a few trends have started to gain pace within the industry, driving a change in instrumentation requirements for operations managers and plant chemists:

    • Maintenance and operations budget cuts have resulted in fewer plant personnel, forcing plant staff to optimize their workload even further
    • As the cost of building new power and boiler systems increase, many operators now look to plant life extensions as a solution to bridge gaps in production capacity at a lower investment premium

    These trends have changed the requirements in these applications. Starting from these trends, this article analyzes the options for oxygen measurements that are precise, reliable, stable, and above all require low to zero maintenance.

    Download the white paper now.

    Hach
    04/27/2015
  • Chemical Processing’s Flow eHandbook: Forestall Flow Frustrations

    Issues related to physical properties, process parameters, electronic features and interconnections can all affect the flow of liquids and gases. Often working around the clock to process, transfer, and store sometimes hazardous and corrosive chemicals, processors must tackle issues related to physical properties and process parameters. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we take a look at what it takes for chemical processors to master flow challenges for several types of materials with vastly different physical properties including:

    • How non-contact ultrasonic meters can ease maintenance and improves accuracy
    • Selecting the right spray nozzle - consider several factors to determine the best choice
    • Why inferring internal flow rate in a column rarely makes sense
    • How using Coriolis mass flowmeters provides reliable indication of gas entrainment
    • Case Study: Speed Pipe Installation – when a pipe-joining system eliminates need to weld or thread connections

    Learn more how to forestall flow frustrations with these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.

    04/15/2015
  • Chemical Processing’s eHandbook: Improve Flow Management

    Half the battle with flow is choosing the proper equipment. Indeed, flow meter selection and specification is crucial. With the wrong choice you’ll be floundering or worse. In addition, process engineers identify “oversizing” as the number one control valve problem. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we identify tips to improve flow including:

    • How to match the flow meter to the service
    • How to handle more flow
    • How to properly size control valves
    • How to tackle biogas flow measurement challenges

    Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.

    01/28/2015
  • Filtering Samples to On-Line Process Analyzers

    Increasingly precise process control strategies, often linked to computer control, have accelerated the use of sophisticated on-line chemical composition analyzers in plant applications. Instruments such as gas and liquid chromatographs, ion chromatographs, laser optic instruments, atomic absorption instruments and specific ion analyzers, which were rarities in laboratories ten years ago, are now found routinely in plant settings.

    While continuing miniaturization and “rugged-ization” of the electronics are making the instrumentation circuitry more tolerant of the plant environment, the level of contamination in plant samples compared to laboratory samples continues to plague the process. This white paper reviews  the factors in plant operation that may affect the deliverability of acceptable samples  and provides guidelines for addressing these factors.

    Parker
    11/04/2014
  • Special Report: Protect Process Control Systems

    In the decade before Stuxnet attacked process control systems in Iran, there were just five known supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) vulnerabilities for all control systems in the world, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT). In 2011, the year after Stuxnet, that vulnerability count jumped to more than 215. Last year, it reached 248. No surprise then that Chemical makers are increasingly focusing on protecting their process control systems from intrusion both from the inside and outside. In this Chemical Processing Special Report: Protect Process Control Systems, we take a look at:

    • How to better protect your control system - "Defense in depth" is crucial, and new and maturing technologies may help
    • Cyber Security Challenges - learn about countermeasures to protect control systems
    • Case Study: A vulnerability assessment reveals critical gaps in the security of a natural gas pipeline
    • How to mitigate security risks in legacy process control systems  - several steps can help protect against threats and extend the life of legacy equipment

    Learn how to secure your process control systems - and your plant. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Special Report: Protect Process Control Systems now.

    10/29/2014
  • eHandbook: Take the Pressure Off Your Process

    When thinking of the processing of chemicals, we think of any activity including storing, using, handling, manufacturing, or moving chemicals at a site, and any combination of these activities. A common state in many of these activities is the flow - or rate - at which the chemicals are moving through a process. Accurately measuring flow can be a challenge for many chemical processors since so many factors can influence the chemical properties and subsequently the  rate of flow. In this Chemical Processing Pressure eHandbook, we discuss considerations for flow management including:

    • Pressure transmitters -  how noise can pinpoint process problems
    • The use of orifice plates -  how insufficient flow conditioning often undermines measurement accuracy
    • Robust Inferential Sensors - easier-to-develop-and-maintain sensors offer significant benefits for chemical processes

    Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Pressure eHandbook now.

    10/29/2014
  • Chemical Processing’s eHandbook: Take Advantage of Tips for Better Flow

    With more demanding applications than most, chemical processing requires systems and infrastructure that can maintain efficiency and safety. Relative to flow, chemical processors need to address challenges such as corrosion, leak detection and mitigation, flow pressure and volume. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we identify tips to improve flow including:

    • Distillation columns - how gravity-flow loop can enable measuring internal liquid flow in a column
    • The importance of the Process Design Basis
    • Flowmeters  -  monitor, detect and neutralize phosgene leaks
    • Polymer Piping - Material offers numerous benefits over metallic systems and spans various applications

    Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.

    10/15/2014
  • Level eHandbook: Tackle Level Management Challenges

    Level measurement, which is the detection of the phase split between vapor/liquid, liquid/liquid, vapor/solid and even liquid/solid, is a key parameter in the operation and control of modern industrial processes. A reliable outcome depends on the phase conditions being relatively consistent under all process conditions. Unfortunately, the importance of level control isn’t always understood. Failure to measure level reliably has resulted in some of the most serious industrial accidents, including those at the Buncefield, U.K., fuel storage depot and BP’s Texas City refinery. In this Chemical Processing Level Management eHandbook, we discuss best practices for level management including:

    • How to Select the Right Liquid Level Sensor - It’s important to consider a variety of factors when choosing the type of technology
    • Multivariable devices - gain operating and maintenance benefits
    • Achieving level control with dP transmitters - it appears simple but really is not

    Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Process Level Management eHandbook now.

    08/20/2014
  • eHandbook: How To Fight Flow Challenges

    In addition to flow pressure, volume and material state, achieving and maintaining desired flow performance depends upon properly addressing some complicated design and operational issues. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we identify strategies and solutions for aerodynamic, technical, mechanical and economic constraints including:
     
    Hydrogen systems – Inspections and tests for ensuring safety and flow
    Axial compressors – achieving and maintaining desired performance
    Fight flow recirculation – why the phenomenon occurs in centrifugal pumps and how to correct it
     
    Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.

    07/16/2014
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