Chemical plants vary widely in size and complexity yet share common goals for maximizing efficiency safely and cost effectively. This Chemical Processing Special Report tackles two areas in chemical processing - compressed air systems and powder handling - where gains can be achieved for improving efficiency. We also address the concerns of safety as it relates to drying compressed air in hazardous atmospheres.
Whether compressed air systems are centrifugal, rotary screw, reciprocating compressors or a combination, this Special Report provides and understanding of what’s involved in getting a suitable supply of compressed air.
Efficient powder handling can be achieved through optimized humidity management.
Safe drying practices in hazardous air locations
Dust Collection System Complies with Combustible Dust Standards
Combustible dust explosions are a risk in many areas of a chemical plant. Are you in compliance? This white paper reviews the OSHA NEP for combustible dust, NFPA standards on explosion hazards, equipment used for explosion protection, and how to avoid the most common shortfalls to compliance.
The unfortunate propensity of dust explosions to destroy entire facilities and claim lives is very real. Powder handling processes often are comprised of interconnected enclosures and equipment. Flame and pressure resulting from a dust explosion can therefore propagate through piping, across galleries, and reach other pieces of equipment or enclosures, leading to extensive damage. In this Chemical Processing Special Report, we take a look at the latest NFPA standards and dust explosion mitigation strategies. This Special Report covers:
Significant revisions to dust explosion standards – NFPA 654 major changes include new administrative requirements
How to defuse dust dangers - carefully consider and then counter risks of fire and explosion
Five common dust explosion misconceptions that can lead to a false sense of security
Prepare your facility against potential dust explosion dangers. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Special Report now.
Chemical Processing’s Process Safety eHandbook: Tips for Safer Processing
Major accidents with multiple fatalities continue to occur worldwide in theprocess industries, causing distress to those involved and massive costs to companies. Almost daily, facilities in the process industries face a number of specific major accident hazard scenarios depending upon the nature of the substances they handle and their processing activities. These are caused by known initiating events such as failure of hardware or control systems, or errors by operating or maintenance staff. In this Chemical Processing Process Safety eHandbook, we provide tips for safer processing including:
>> The role of senior management including six important steps senior management should take to insure safer processing
>> Process safety documentation – strategies for ensuring that your documentation is up-to-date and readily accessible
Chemical Processing’s Powder eHandbook: Optimize Powder Processing
Some chemical makers are missing opportunities to reduce operating costs and increase profits because they aren’t striving to re-engineer and streamline their processes. A plant often can achieve substantial benefits through simplified steps that do more and work better with less complexity. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for optimizing powder processing including:
• Streamlining the chemical processing process – enhancing operations by removing complexities that creep in over time
• Suppression systems – How a properly designed and engineered suppression system offers many advantages including explosion aversion
• Mitigating the impact of uncertainty - how the correct weighing system and a proper maintenance schedule can ensure accuracy
Learn strategies for optimizing your powder processing. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
Mixing Solutions and Slurries -- Effectively, Economically and Safely
Effectively mixing liquids and solids to create an optimal slurry is one of the perpetual challenges in the chemical industry. This case study demonstrates how an eductor-based mixing system can effectively handle a wide range of materials, utilizing the least amount of floor space, energy and human resources to achieve an optimized process. In addition, the eductor mixing system offers increased efficiencies over a conventional system of mixing by allowing solutions and slurries to be made on demand – as opposed to pre-mixed in large holding tanks. Another important benefit is the system limits exposure to operators, and mitigates issues of delivering solid material in a large vapor space. The design flexibility of an educator-based mixing system offers a high level of customization.
White Paper: Understanding the Risks Associated with FIBCs and Electrostatic Hazards
Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBCs) have found their niche in the worldwide transportation of powdered, flaked and granulated products. FIBCs are typically made of woven plastic with some type of liner insert and are often referred to as super sacks, big bags or bulk bags in industry. During filling and emptying of FIBCs there is a steady accumulation of static charge that can result in electrostatic discharges from the FIBC. This may in turn provide sufficient energy for ignition of combustible particulate solids or flammable vapors, not to mention unsettling shocks to nearby personnel. In this white paper we review the NFPA 654 Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from Combustible Particulate Solids and the importance of why identifying the Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) of your combustible dust or flammable vapor is a necessary component for selecting the correct FIBC Type for your application. Download now.
Fauske & Associates
Mixing of Powders into Liquids – Dust-free Induction and Dispersion
Mixing of powders into liquids should be relatively easy. You pour powder onto the liquid's surface and then mix it in. However, this mixing can be very troublesome in production. This paper examines the various factors involved with mixing powders into liquids and how to avoid potential problems.
CP Special Report: Hardware Safety
The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard [29 CFR 1910.119(j)] require plant management to identify and address hazards. Further challenging plant management, the mechanical integrity (MI) element of the PSM has been difficult for many facilities to implement. In fact, PSM audits by OSHA have consistently demonstrated that MI accounts for a large number of citations at most facilities. In this Chemical Processing Special Report, we take a look at how to effectively implement strategies to comply with PSM standards including:
Common piping, hoses and valves hazards – what PHA (Process Handling Analysis) teams should look for to improve the quality of the hazard evaluation
MI element of PSM – an in-depth look at the stated MI requirements, the perceived interpretation of these requirements and further considerations for identifying your plant’s compliance strategy
MI implications – the impact MI has on plant’s written procedures, training, inspection & testing, and how equipment deficiencies and quality assurance programs are managed
Continental Disc Corp.
Fired Up: Combustible Dust Raises Explosive Issues
Combustible dust fires happen in plants everyday. This white paper helps manufacturers learn more about combustible dust hazards and ways to handle combustible dust in your manufacturing plant in order to comply with OSHA's NEP. Learn more about choosing the right cleaning tools for your facility.
Nilfisk Industrial Vacuums
Preventing Phenolic Resin Reactor Accidents
An easy to use generalized vent sizing formula is illustrated to be consistent with large scale industry experience and dedicated phenolic runaway reaction tests performed by Fauske & Associates, LLC. The formula also clearly explains the 1999 catastrophic failure of a phenol-formaldehyde reactor resulting from a grossly undersized relief system.
Drying Compressed Air in Hazardous Atmospheres
Hazardous locations have or could potentially have high concentrations of flammable gases, vapors, combustible dusts, etc. A small spark can lead to a horrific explosion dangerous to equipment and workers in the area. Equipment located in hazardous areas must be specifically designed to prevent ignition and explosion.
Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook: Succeed at Solids Handling
One of the trickiest materials to process, solids are comprised of powders or particulates, a continuous gaseous phase (usually air) and, almost always, a liquid component. Processors that handle solids know only too well the types of throughput problems that come up on a recurring basis. Clumping; effective, economical and safe slurry mixing; dust management and dust explosion risk mitigation are all very real challenges faced by processors of solids. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at how to effectively handle solids including:
Clumping – the 10 most common sources of agglomeration in bulk solids and how to effectively manage them
Strategies for optimal slurry mixing
Level management detection in storage vessels
Dust explosion risks – how to identify and mitigate when processing solids
Managing solid cohesiveness with flow strategies
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
Improve Plant Safety - A Chemical Processing Special Report
In chemicals processing, significant hazards exist -- such as those from fire, explosions or toxic release. The processes themselves, the chemicals being processed and the procedures followed, or lack thereof, can all contribute to the risk exposure of these hazards. What can processors do to mitigate these risks? For chemicals processors, it's crucial to implement processes and solutions to detect and prevent these hazards from occurring in the first place.
Chemical Processing has taken an in-depth look at plant safety -- how to identify the hazards and implement processes and procedures to ensure a safer working environment. This comprehensive Chemical Processing Special Report titled: Improve Plant Safety is now available to download for free.
Gas And Dust Explosions -- Relief Sizing Formula
A large number of analytical and highly empirical correlations including monograms reflecting changing standards have been or are being proposed separately for gas and dust explosion relief venting. This white paper provides a generalized formula that is applicable to both gas and dust deflagrations including subsonic and sonic pressure relief conditions and is consistent with available experimental data and industry experience. Application of the model is illustrated for dust explosions. Download now.
Fauske & Associates
What Does It Cost To Own Your Dust Collector Filters?
When choosing filters for your cartridge dust collector, a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) calculation allows you to make the most economical and sustainable choice. TCO is a step-by-step evaluation that explores energy use, maintenance and other factors to compare the real costs of operating a dust collector with different filters. This white paper explains how to perform TCO calculations to save money, time and energy.
Camfil Farr APC
OSHA & NFPA Compliant: Keeping Your Plant Safe
In March 2008, OSHA reissued its Combustible Dust National Emphasis Program (NEP) notifying approximately 30,000 companies nationwide that they will be targeted for inspections over the next few years. Mettler Toledo recognizes that many manufacturers are not up-to-date on the latest hazardous area compliance regulations or may not know that their industry is subject to those regulations. Don't wait until your facility receives a surprise visit from OSHA or worse yet, for a catastrophic incident to occur. Take the proactive approach to addressing the "hazardous area advisory level" in your facility.
Asking The Right Questions About Cartridge Dust Collection
Over the past decade, cartridge-style dust collectors have overtaken baghouses as the preferred technology for dust collection in the chemical processing industry. Combining high efficiency filtration with compact size and reduced pressure drop, a high efficiency cartridge dust collector will in most cases be the system of choice.
Choosing the best cartridge collection system for a given application, however, involves research and attention to detail. This article will review four key areas of investigation. By reviewing these topics with a knowledgeable equipment supplier and knowing the right questions to ask, chemical manufacturing professionals will be better equipped to make informed dust collection decisions. Download this whitepaper now.
How Well Do You Know Your Dust?
The collection and testing of dust samples is a long-established practice used by many powder and bulk processors to make informed dust collection decisions. Dust testing protocols have not changed markedly in recent years. The importance of dust testing, however, has changed, and the implications are significant. While knowing your dust has always been good practice, it is rapidly becoming a necessity in today's regulatory climate.
This article will review two separate types of testing: (1) explosibility testing, which is used to determine whether a dust is combustible; and (2) bench testing, which pinpoints numerous physical properties of the dust. Both categories of tests are needed to determine the best dust collection system for your application and whether explosion venting equipment must be part of that system.