IT Security for Process Control Using Siemens SIMATIC PCS 7
Ensuring the security of industrial control systems is hardly a new topic. The earliest users of modern control systems in power stations and chemical plants saw the need to protect access to vital control functions from unauthorized use. Similarly, in industries such as fine chemical or pharmaceutical
where the process is the product, manufacturers have always sought to protect the secrets of their unique processes from the prying eyes of industrial spies. This white paper by ARC describes how the Siemens AG PCS7 Security Concept bundles key security measures in seveal specific areas to create a deep hierarchy of security known as defense in depth.
ARC Advisory Group
Anticipating and Resolving Resource Overloads
This white paper by Project Success Incorporated focuses on the resource that is of greatest concern to most organizations personnel. In a project management system, personnel resources may be identified as individuals by name or as functional groups, such as computer programmers.
Passive techniques for reducing input current harmonics
Harmonics can have a detrimental effect on power generators and other sensitive electrical equipment for the user and utility alike. The number of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) has increased significantly in the past decade. Their contribution to the total electrical load of a power system is significant and cannot be neglected. This white paper discusses various passive techniques for reducing input current harmonics.
Yaskawa Electric America, Inc.
Rectifier design for fuel ethanol plants reduces energy
Plants have traditionally used trays in the distillation columns to produce fuels grade ethanol. Trays of various configurations have been adequate in this service and their technology is well founded. The ever-present desire to reduce the energy needed to produce a gallon of ethanol has opened the doors to structured packings being used in the rectification sections of ethanol distillation columns.
Biodiesel Fuel From Palm Oil Too Good to be Used as Fuel?
The high prices for oil and gas have spotlighted other sources of fuel for internal combustion engines. Biofuel, a fuel derived from ethanol, and biodiesel fuel, a dieselequivalent derived from biological sources, are two possible substitutes for petrochemical fuel.
Sulzer Chemtech USA, Inc.
Process Moisture Analysis using FT-NIR
Manufacturing a pure product can be critically important to the next steps in the manufacture of a powder-based product. As a result the removal of residual moisture and solvents from the crystallization, filtration and drying steps can be crucial to producing a stable product.
Managing Complex Equipment Status in a GMP Environment
Batch manufacturing systems must maintain the status of equipment, including which are available, dirty, out of service, etc. In industries that enforce Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), additional status types and values for process equipment must be maintained. Rules associated with the equipment status can be complex and involve the equipment class, current equipment state and time in the current
state. This paper covers the operator interface used to review the equipment status and the interlocking requirements between the recipe and batch phases based on multiple status types.
De-bottlenecking A De-iso-butanizer With VG-Plus High Performance Trays
To maximize a plants performance, it is critical to fully understand the equipment being used, their mechanisms of operation, limitations and capabilities. This includes furnaces, exchangers, pumps, and mass transfer devices for distillation columns: fractionation trays, random and structured packing and associated liquid and vapor distributors. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the key factors to successfully revamp with the goal of maximizing capacity without compromising efficiency.
Use CFD to Improve Crystallization | Chemical Processing
In this article, Kumar Dhanasekharan, Ph.D., technical specialist with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) specialist Fluent, Inc., shows how modelling crystallizers using CFD can help improve process understanding, control crystal size distribution (CSD) and improve pharmaceutical crystallization results.
Aseptic PAT and Particle Monitoring
In this white paper, Mark Hallworth, pharmaceutical manager for Particle Measuring Systems, discusses continuous monitoring methods, how theyre evolving, and why theyre important.
PACs for industrial control: The future of control
With a number of vendors producing Programmable Automation Controllers that combine the functionality of a PC and reliability of a PLC, PACs today are increasingly being incorporated into control systems. This white paper explores the origins of the PAC, how PACs differ from PLCs and PCs, and the future direction of industrial control with PACs.
Hygienic Feeder Design
Specifying a hygienic bulk solids feeder is not a simple task. The wide variety of requirements needed
for specific applications are similar in scope to explosion proof environmental requirement variations.