Process Engineering White Papers

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  • Research Paper: Investigating the Relationship between Gypsum Purity and Hydrogen Sulfide Production under Anaerobic Conditions

    Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) more commonly known as gypsum is a naturally occurring white crystalline mineral that has many different uses and applications. Gypsum in its hydrated form (CaSO4•2H2O) is used in the construction industry for fire resistance in buildings. Outside of the construction industry, gypsum is used in the food and fertilizer industry for calcium and sulfate fortification respectively. When gypsum is no longer usable, it is deposited in construction and demolition(C&D) landfills where anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions and the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria promote the decomposition of wallboard/gypsum into hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Due to local and state regulations on odor control, these C&D sites monitor their fill for hydrogen sulfide gas.  This paper will couple two methods of analysis to observe the relationship between the purity of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) and hydrogen sulfide concentration as a sample is fermented by sulfate-reducing agents (e.g. bacteria). The scope of this research may be beneficial for industrial hygienists concerned with C&D landfill H2S levels or for incoming gypsum processing plants who suspect poor quality gypsum.

  • Heat Exchanger Challenges with Light Tight Crude

    Energy consumption remains one of the largest controllable costs in oil refineries. Heat exchanger fouling can have a significant impact on energy efficiency and production loss. Asphaltene Precipitation is caused when refiners blend incompatible crudes. This is a major source of fouling and leads to performance limitations within days. Heat exchanger fouling is a major challenge for refinery operations. With the increase in crude blending from opportunity crudes such as tight oil, the traditional “manual” monitoring approach may no longer be effective. This White Paper discusses how on-line monitoring and analysis can enable refineries to:

    • Better Understand Accelerated Fouling Due to Crude  Incompatibilities
    • Learn How to Use Online Monitoring to Detect Fouling
    • Identify Which Tube Bundles Require Cleaning

  • No More Risky Business With Virtual Patching

    Patching process control system software to remove security vulnerabilities is fraught with risk. System issues can be the result of installing a patch, but a system is also vulnerable without patching. Fortunately, virtual patching can improve the process and raise the system’s security at the same time.

  • Impact of Formula-Based ERP Applications on Chemical Manufacturers

    By understanding the key functions and architecture of a process-oriented, formula based ERP application, you will have a better foundation for choosing a solution that best suits your company and type of manufacturing.

    This practical guide and checklist ties the unique operations of chemical manufacturers to specific ERP functionality and architecture. Topics include:
    • Formula Specifications
    • Variability and Quality
    • Product Accountability and Costing
    • Traceability
    • IT Maintenance
      Don't settle for a "one size fits all" ERP solution. With the "right fit" ERP solution, you will be able to streamline operations, reduce costs and scale production, while complying with federal regulations -- all with minimum customization.

    CDC Software
  • Gas And Dust Explosions -- Relief Sizing Formula

    A large number of analytical and highly empirical correlations including monograms reflecting changing standards have been or are being proposed separately for gas and dust explosion relief venting. This white paper provides a generalized formula that is applicable to both gas and dust deflagrations including subsonic and sonic pressure relief conditions and is consistent with available experimental data and industry experience. Application of the model is illustrated for dust explosions. Download now.

    Fauske & Associates
  • Chemical Processing Special Report: Beyond Condition Monitoring: Prevent Failures through Condition Management

    For years chemicals makers have tracked the health of key equipment yet they still grapple with unplanned outages that can significantly impact financial performance through lost production and extra repair costs. In this Special Report, we'll explore underlying condition monitoring challenges and introduce the concept of condition management -- an enhanced approach that helps companies reap the full benefit from their condition monitoring investments; we'll also discuss how CMMS tools can help to provide a clear understanding of maintenance operations performance as well as provide some guidance on what you can expect from a CMMS vendor. Lastly, listen to the lively discussion between Chemical Processing's Senior Digital Editor,Traci Purdum, and Edgewater Fullscope's Senior Vice President, Russell Smith, as they converse on how ERP can help manage the supply chain.

    Edgewater Fullscope
  • Raising Confidence and Driving Business Value with Product and REACH Compliance

    Over the past 10 years, manufacturers have faced an increasing number of compliance and product quality challenges, ranging from new regulations to product recalls. This White Paper details the business case for an integrated and comprehensive view of product and REACH compliance processes. If "done right," it is expected that these improvements to the compliance process can not only provide time and cost savings but also open doors to new markets, lower risks associated with complex supply chains, protect the reputation of the brand, and create a foundation for environmental sustainability.

  • Consider the Unique Requirements of Chemical Industries When Selecting ERP Software

    Support for off spec materials, formula management, changeovers, parallel operations, lot trace and trace, unlimited unit of measure conversions, is key.

    There are a host of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and supply chain management applications available to chemical manufacturers—the challenge is selecting the right one that offers a baseline product with industry-specific functionality. Many ERP applications available today are not industry-specific enough for chemical manufacturers and require major modifications, or, one must select from an industry template that may or may not fit specific needs.

    There is also the chance that the software provider may not exist in two to three years (e.g., it may be acquired and the product’s future may become unknown), or the provider may not be financially secure, adding long-term risk.

    Fullscope, Inc.
  • ChemicalProcessing Special Report: Pilot Plants

    Read about the 10 factors that will impact the design, construction and operation of these next-generation pilot plant units.

    Learn about new pilot plant development methods.
    Understand the role operational guidance plays in successful pilot plant development.

    Continental Technologies LLC, Pilot Plant Design, Fabrication & Operation
  • Dust Explosion Protection using Flameless Venting

    This 18-page white paper explores a new option – flameless venting – which has recently been developed for dust explosions and is being actively marketed as an alternative to vent ducting.

    Fike Corporation
  • The effects of antifoams on ultrafiltration membranes

    This paper discusses the problem of membrane fouling by antifoams, its leading causes and describes the development of a nonfouling antifoam for processes that use ultrafiltration downstream.

    Dow Corning Corporation
  • Biodiesel Fuel From Palm Oil – Too Good to be Used as Fuel?

    The high prices for oil and gas have spotlighted other sources of fuel for internal combustion engines. Biofuel, a fuel derived from ethanol, and biodiesel fuel, a dieselequivalent derived from biological sources, are two possible substitutes for petrochemical fuel.

    Sulzer Chemtech USA, Inc.
  • PACs for industrial control: The future of control

    With a number of vendors producing Programmable Automation Controllers that combine the functionality of a PC and reliability of a PLC, PACs today are increasingly being incorporated into control systems. This white paper explores the origins of the PAC, how PACs differ from PLCs and PCs, and the future direction of industrial control with PACs.

    National Instruments
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