Vacuum drying can be applied in a range of processes in several industries, including chemical, pharmaceutical, food, plastics, and metal powders. This article first discusses vacuum drying benefits and limitations and dryer components and operation, then explains the differences between tumble and agitated vacuum dryers and how you can select one for your application.
This 22-page paper from the Dept. of Energy, Hydraulic Institute and Europump explains the importance of understanding the total costs of ownership to achieve savings in energy, and operational and maintenance costs. It discusses what lifecycle cost is, what should be considered in a lifecycle cost analysis, and the role of proper pump system design.
Most companies have completed at least three process safety management(PSM) compliance audits of their covered facilities since the promulgation of the OSHA PSM standard. These companies, however, are not seeing noticeable improvements in their PSM programs. In fact, many companies feel that their PSM programs have become less effective. What has happened and why? Are there any lessons learned from the Enron collapse and its auditing program? What needs to be done?
Safe design has long been a priority in the process industries. A safe design basis, together with a formal safety management system and safety practices, procedures, and training, is critical for providing that level of confidence required for risk management. The goal of process safety management is to consistently reduce risk to a level that can be tolerated by all concerned. A systematic, risk-based approach to safety design can help eliminate hazards that pose intolerable risk from the process and mitigate the potential consequences of hazards.
This paper provides the viewpoint of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), a private not-for-profit, non-governmental corporation open to all industrial hygienists or other occupational health and safety professionals. The authors have the opinion that there are misunderstandings about the use of regulated health and safety standards.
In part one of this article, they provide some information on how regulations are formed and advice on using these values to conduct business. Employers and employees need this fundamental understanding to make informed health and safety decisions. This information is also useful for guiding public decisions about everyday toxic exposures.
In the wake of a Wal-Mart mandate requiring top suppliers to put Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) tags on cases and pallets of consumer goods by January 2005, Rockwell Automation offers this white paper to help educate manufacturers on how to maximize their investment in RFID technology throughout their enterprise and supply chains. The paper provides a practical guide to extracting measurable value from RFID implementations in plant and warehousing operations.
This 6-page primer explains the various forms of nonwoven media, their special characteristics, as well as filter configurations and function. It discusses advantages and disadvantages, and application trends.
Many catalytic reactions rely on platinum, palladium and other precious metal catalysts. When the activity of the catalyst declines to the point that it must be replaced, the used catalyst can be sent to a refiner to recover precious metal. This 8-page paper discusses the variouis factors that should be considered when using a refiner.
Process control vendors are migrating plant control technologies to more open network and operating environments. This White Paper explains how layered security can be accomplished by adopting a "best practices" model, developing and implementing an access control plan, and compartmentalizing the network.
This paper covers key aspects for modeling and design of batch reactors, including: heat-up and cool-down performance, sensitivity analysis for reactor parameters, boil-up rate predictions, thermal stability under exothermic conditions, control system design and loop tuning parameters, condenser rating, and process emissions predictions.
Vortex meters are ideal for measuring saturated steam flow, and now can be used to measure mass flow with integrated temperature sensor and controller software. These meters can also be integrated into a Foundation Fieldbus industrial network system.
This 30-page paper reviews proper engineering and design practices for enhancing the reliability of gravity flow. It covers bulk containers, including storage hoppers and bins, as well as pneumatic conveying systems.
This 9-page paper summarizes the various applications and benefits of the use of fingerprints to restrict access to information and transactions. It covers access via the Internet and other networks as well as physical access.
Operations staff and plant engineers also have a keen interest in the security of control networks. They are responsible for the reliability, availability, safety and integrity of the process. Their facilities are the ones producing products and earning revenues, so their concerns, priorities and knowledge must also be considered when determining security options.
This 33-page paper discusses the wide variety of factors that can cause fouling and the impact of this fouling on the performance of a distillation column. It then provides details on practical methods for mitigating fouling, including equipment design, surface treatment, and use of additives.