Unexpected Value Across Three Industries
Expensive repair and replacement of processing infrastructures pose major headaches for operations across the chemical processing, mineral processing and power generation industries—and polymer piping solutions can help.
The most commonly used compound in the chemical industry is water – not only as a solvent in processing, but also as an energy carrier in the cooling or heating cycle. As vast amounts of water are needed, chemical industries are often located close to large bodies of flowing water. Water used as processing or cooling water is cleaned and subsequently led back to the river or stream. For environmental protection, these waters are subject to specific control and monitoring measures. As the total organic carbon (TOC) non-specifically detects all organic compounds, this parameter has proven to be invaluable here. This booklet introduces a variety of industry-specific applications, and how Shimadzu can provide TOC analyzers to meet specific chemical application needs.
Breakdown of organic wastes entering a wastewater treatment plant is accomplished by using a biomass or blend of beneficial microscopic organisms, bacteria, and solids. This converts the nonsettleable solids (dissolved and colloidal matter) into settleable solids, carbon dioxide, water, and energy. This paper reviews the most common stages for measuring and controlling dissolved oxygen in a wastewater treatment plant.
Tips for Improving the Performance of Your Gravimetric Feeder
Download the white paper to receive information on maximizing the performance of your gravimetric feeder. You will receive tips on how to choose and set up the right feeder for the specific material being fed in your process. Handling free flowing, adhesive, cohesive, aeratable, hygroscopic and pressure sensitive materials plus ways on where and how to properly install a gravimetric feeder are discussed.
The debate over the virtues of DCS vs. PLC has been ongoing since these two architectures came into existence 40 years ago. For certain industries, a distributed control system (DCS) provides substantially more value as the basis for automating the plant than a programmable logic controller (PLC)-based system. As functionality differences narrow and price points align, the debate over these virtues is getting more intense and the arguments for and against each system are getting more and more murky. This white paper discusses the “Top Ten” issues to consider when evaluating a DCS vs. building your own “DIY” distributed control system using a PLC-based architecture.
During industrial manufacturing, many companies use a wide variety of chemicals from methanol, acetone and benzene to foodstuffs like wine and edible oils stored in large tanks at different points in the manufacturing process. In a technique called “chemical tank blanketing,” or “padding” nitrogen is commonly applied to protect chemicals stored in tanks against contamination, degradation or chemical change as well as to prevent fire or explosions. This white paper first discusses blanketing basics and benefits. It reviews considerations for tank blanketing systems and discusses a newer approach, which is typically more cost effective for most applications, is that of generating nitrogen on-demand in the plant itself.
Operating and maintaining a reliable steam system is vital to chemical processing plants and can have significant cost impact on a plant's annual budget. Typical profit drainers in operating and maintaining a steam system include excessive fuel cost, inefficient steam generation, less-than-optimal steam utlization and poor condensate recovery. Ensuring adequate supply of steam often results in excessive capacity usage, expensive fuel choices or condensate draining to grade, leading to compromised efficiency levels and higher steam cost. Because steam systems dependency is unavoidalbe, addressing those three issues is crucial to minimizing steam costs. This Chemical Processing Steam eHandbook presents an overview, steam technologies and strategies for reducing cost associated with using and generating steam including:
Controlling steam system energy costs
Real-time monitoring - how wireless devices help cut energy losses by detecting failed steam traps
Learn how to generate savings through steam use and generation. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Steam eHandbook now.
Process Filtration Technology: Making Informed Decisions
Solid-liquid separation is an instrumental part of chemical processing. To separate the solid particles, filter media made of textile or metallic materials and of composite materials are used as the basis for the filter cake. Often there will also be a washing process to improve the purity of the filter cake or to increase the yield of the liquid phase. Solid-liquid separation can be carried out in continuous or batch operation. There are many factors for selecting the right process filtration system for your specific application. This white paper reviews methods for identifying the right process filtration technology for your application and highlights case studies illustrating the methods discussed.
A material’s characteristics and how they may change during processing can affect HOW these materials are processed. Key factors affecting powders include aeration, moisture absorption, electrostatic charging to name a few. Many bulk solids are sensitive to heat and humidity. As these levels rise, either in the feeder system or via outside conditions, flow problems crop up. As the powder gains strength, jams and poor flow conditions begin to appear. Costly downtime and a loss of product are incurred while a search is made for a solution to the flow problems. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key factors affecting powders and today’s best practices for overcoming the processing of powders including:
Looking beyond the physical properties of particles and treating powder as a bulk entity
How scanners take volume to a new level - acoustics-based sensors can help accurately measure the volume of powders in vessels
How to determine a coating’s volatile content - advancements in rapid loss-on-drying techniques significantly reduce testing time
Testing powder flow - advances in test methods help better predict flow behavior at elevated temperature and humidity levels
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
Loss on Drying vs. Thermogravimetric Analysis
Synthesized is used in a variety of applications. The construction industry uses it as the primary ingredient in drywall, and as a setting inhibitor in Portland cement. The property of Gypsum that makes it valuable as a fire retardant in construction materials is also what makes it a good candidate for Loss on Drying analysis.
Level measurement, which is the detection of the phase split between vapor/liquid, liquid/liquid, vapor/solid and even liquid/solid, is a key parameter in the operation and control of modern industrial processes. A reliable outcome depends on the phase conditions being relatively consistent under all process conditions. Unfortunately, the importance of level control isn’t always understood. Failure to measure level reliably has resulted in some of the most serious industrial accidents, including those at the Buncefield, U.K., fuel storage depot and BP’s Texas City refinery. In this Chemical Processing Level Management eHandbook, we discuss best practices for level management including:
How to Select the Right Liquid Level Sensor - It’s important to consider a variety of factors when choosing the type of technology
Multivariable devices - gain operating and maintenance benefits
Achieving level control with dP transmitters - it appears simple but really is not
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Process Level Management eHandbook now.
Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) more commonly known as gypsum is a naturally occurring white crystalline mineral that has many different uses and applications. Gypsum in its hydrated form (CaSO4•2H2O) is used in the construction industry for fire resistance in buildings. Outside of the construction industry, gypsum is used in the food and fertilizer industry for calcium and sulfate fortification respectively. When gypsum is no longer usable, it is deposited in construction and demolition(C&D) landfills where anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions and the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria promote the decomposition of wallboard/gypsum into hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Due to local and state regulations on odor control, these C&D sites monitor their fill for hydrogen sulfide gas. This paper will couple two methods of analysis to observe the relationship between the purity of gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) and hydrogen sulfide concentration as a sample is fermented by sulfate-reducing agents (e.g. bacteria). The scope of this research may be beneficial for industrial hygienists concerned with C&D landfill H2S levels or for incoming gypsum processing plants who suspect poor quality gypsum.
Hazardous locations have or could potentially have high concentrations of flammable gases, vapors, combustible dusts, etc. A small spark can lead to a horrific explosion dangerous to equipment and workers in the area. Equipment located in hazardous areas must be specifically designed to prevent ignition and explosion.
Read this White Paper to learn:
Types of hazardous areas
Conditions classified as hazardous
Specifications for equipment located in hazardous areas
Explosion proof dryers designed for compressed air systems
Energy consumption remains one of the largest controllable costs in oil refineries. Heat exchanger fouling can have a significant impact on energy efficiency and production loss. Asphaltene Precipitation is caused when refiners blend incompatible crudes. This is a major source of fouling and leads to performance limitations within days. Heat exchanger fouling is a major challenge for refinery operations. With the increase in crude blending from opportunity crudes such as tight oil, the traditional “manual” monitoring approach may no longer be effective. This White Paper discusses how on-line monitoring and analysis can enable refineries to:
Better Understand Accelerated Fouling Due to Crude Incompatibilities
Learn How to Use Online Monitoring to Detect Fouling
Identify Which Tube Bundles Require Cleaning
HACH BioTector 3500c Analyzer For TOC, TC, TIC and VOC Analysis
In recent years, TOC analysis has become accepted in the industry as the standard method and the only reliable online method used to determine contamination in waters, to control processes, to prevent product losses and to minimize waste. It is especially important to monitor this parameter in applications such as condensate return water, boiler/feed water, etc. In boiler/feed water and in industrial steam generating systems, carbonic acid corrosion of condensate lines is often a serious problem. Depending on the application type, analysis of only one parameter (e.g., TC) is generally not sufficient to make any useful process decisions. Multiple-parameter analysis (TOC, TC, TIC, VOC etc.), as carried out in the Hach BioTector B3500c analyzer, is proven to be more useful and always superior to single-parameter analysis in the industry.
When designing a system to transport powders and granules there is a wide variety of considerations. Different applications, installation environments, equipment, material characteristics and how they may change during the process are all part of the equation. While many plants aim to keep costs low and often times use old equipment for a new project this can also further compound a complex challenge. And that's not even taking in to consideration our increased awareness of the risks of an explosion and the need to avoid hazardous emissions. In this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook, we take a look at key considerations affecting today’s best practices for transporting and processing powders and granules including:
Installing pneumatic conveyors correctly - 10 steps to prevent a variety of common problems
How to understand accuracy in a bin level monitoring system
Tubular drag conveying - an alternative to pneumatic conveying
Vacuum Conveying equipment and the issues of safety, security and sanitation
Learn how to process powders efficiently. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Powder eHandbook now.
More than 25% of maintenance done today is unnecessary and can introduce additional failure risks. Developing and implementing predictive maintenance strategies and practices can lead to improved safety and reduced operating costs. In this Chemical Processing eHandbook, we take a look at strategies and solutions for overcoming predictive maintenance challenges including:
Asset management software - identifying the most relevant and accurate data on which to build maintenance and repair strategies
The importance of maintenance on smaller component - using gauges as early warning devices can improve uptime, safety and profits
Uncovering important insights from your data and the use of statistics such as regression analysis for emulating pump curves or control valves
Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Predictive Maintenance eHandbook now.
In addition to flow pressure, volume and material state, achieving and maintaining desired flow performance depends upon properly addressing some complicated design and operational issues. In this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook, we identify strategies and solutions for aerodynamic, technical, mechanical and economic constraints including:
Hydrogen systems – Inspections and tests for ensuring safety and flow Axial compressors – achieving and maintaining desired performance Fight flow recirculation – why the phenomenon occurs in centrifugal pumps and how to correct it
Learn more about these best flow practices. Download your copy of this Chemical Processing Flow eHandbook now.
Dust Collection System Complies with Combustible Dust Standards
Combustible dust explosions are a risk in many areas of a chemical plant. Are you in compliance? This white paper reviews the OSHA NEP for combustible dust, NFPA standards on explosion hazards, equipment used for explosion protection, and how to avoid the most common shortfalls to compliance.
Chemical plants vary widely in size and complexity yet share common goals for maximizing efficiency safely and cost effectively. This Chemical Processing Special Report tackles two areas in chemical processing - compressed air systems and powder handling - where gains can be achieved for improving efficiency. We also address the concerns of safety as it relates to drying compressed air in hazardous atmospheres.
Whether compressed air systems are centrifugal, rotary screw, reciprocating compressors or a combination, this Special Report provides and understanding of what’s involved in getting a suitable supply of compressed air.
Efficient powder handling can be achieved through optimized humidity management.