This guide from the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration covers pre-startup safety review, mechanical integrity, how-work permits, management of change, incident investigation, emergency planning and response and compliance audits, among other topics.
Today's control system make it easy to add alarms. The result has been a proliferation of alarms that can overwhelm an operator and actually obscure situations that really require immediate attention. This paper provides practical guidance on effective procedures that can significantly reduce nuisance alarms and improve operator effectiveness.
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are widely used throughout the chemical industry. This paper provides a review of the key issues involved in their thermal design. It covers both process and mechanical issues, and discusses appropriate methods for determining various parameters.
This new U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration paper describes OHSA's confined-space satndard, and discusses how to meet it by controlling hazards, administering entry permits and assigning duties, as well as how to deal with emergencies and OSHA assistance available.
Maintaining peak performance of organic heat transfer fluids can require removal of dirt and pipe scale, oxidation, thermal degradation, and process contamination. This paper describes the appropriate cleaning techniques for dealing with solids; sludge, high-viscosity fluid and residues; process contamination; and hard coke.
This paper reviews the basic techniques for dynamic modeling of these two key operations. It covers considerations related to heat transfer, reaction chemistry, mass balances and the control system. It also discusses equipment configurations, performance characteristics and operational constraints.
This paper presents best practices that allow the user to quantify the impact of real-world failure causes and to take credit for improvements in system design. Besides selection, it also covers installation and maintenance.
This paper describes how to select a transmitter based on best practices instead of the "surge-plus-10%" rule. It presents methodologies and tools to minimize unnecessary energy cost without increasing safety risk.
A global manufacturing company needed to transfer data from their plant in Detroit, Michigan to a process data storage system in St. Paul, Minnesota. Their Control Systems Engineering Group chose OPC technology as the communication medium.