This paper covers key aspects for modeling and design of batch reactors, including: heat-up and cool-down performance, sensitivity analysis for reactor parameters, boil-up rate predictions, thermal stability under exothermic conditions, control system design and loop tuning parameters, condenser rating, and process emissions predictions.
This 22-page paper from the Dept. of Energy, Hydraulic Institute and Europump explains the importance of understanding the total costs of ownership to achieve savings in energy, and operational and maintenance costs. It discusses what lifecycle cost is, what should be considered in a lifecycle cost analysis, and the role of proper pump system design.
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are widely used throughout the chemical industry. This paper provides a review of the key issues involved in their thermal design. It covers both process and mechanical issues, and discusses appropriate methods for determining various parameters.
Vortex meters are ideal for measuring saturated steam flow, and now can be used to measure mass flow with integrated temperature sensor and controller software. These meters can also be integrated into a Foundation Fieldbus industrial network system.
This technical white paper discusses Yokogawas CENTUM CS 3000 R3 DCS (Distributed Control System) product and the extent of its compliance with Part 11 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (21 CFR Part 11), the Electronic Records/Electronic Signatures Rule.
This 30-page paper reviews proper engineering and design practices for enhancing the reliability of gravity flow. It covers bulk containers, including storage hoppers and bins, as well as pneumatic conveying systems.
This 9-page paper summarizes the various applications and benefits of the use of fingerprints to restrict access to information and transactions. It covers access via the Internet and other networks as well as physical access.
Plant security is a key priority at many plants. This 10-page paper provides background what the methodology for a plant vulnerability analysis involves. It covers topics such as how to get started, available tools, and risk assessment.
Operations staff and plant engineers also have a keen interest in the security of control networks. They are responsible for the reliability, availability, safety and integrity of the process. Their facilities are the ones producing products and earning revenues, so their concerns, priorities and knowledge must also be considered when determining security options.
This 33-page paper discusses the wide variety of factors that can cause fouling and the impact of this fouling on the performance of a distillation column. It then provides details on practical methods for mitigating fouling, including equipment design, surface treatment, and use of additives.
This 15-page paper discusses the approach that should be taken when using insulation on vessels containing reactive chemicals, including how to determine the required response time for a given insulation thickness. It provides a number of specific recommendations.
This 15-page paper focuses on the additional degrees of complexity that reactive systems pose for emergency relief systems. It covers topics such as how to screen for reactivity and what practices, standards and regulations should be followed, as well as a host of other issues.
In the wake of a Wal-Mart mandate requiring top suppliers to put Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) tags on cases and pallets of consumer goods by January 2005, Rockwell Automation offers this white paper to help educate manufacturers on how to maximize their investment in RFID technology throughout their enterprise and supply chains. The paper provides a practical guide to extracting measurable value from RFID implementations in plant and warehousing operations.
Safe design has long been a priority in the process industries. A safe design basis, together with a formal safety management system and safety practices, procedures, and training, is critical for providing that level of confidence required for risk management. The goal of process safety management is to consistently reduce risk to a level that can be tolerated by all concerned. A systematic, risk-based approach to safety design can help eliminate hazards that pose intolerable risk from the process and mitigate the potential consequences of hazards.
This paper reviews the basic techniques for dynamic modeling of these two key operations. It covers considerations related to heat transfer, reaction chemistry, mass balances and the control system. It also discusses equipment configurations, performance characteristics and operational constraints.
Calibrating your instruments using specialty gas will only yield results as accurate as your gas mixture. This three-page white paper discusses analytic traceability and how it relates to gas mixture accuracy.