Carefully managing compressed air can save money. Compressed air is often overlooked in energy studies because many people do not fully understand compressed air equipment, their own system, or what it costs to produce compressed air power.
Author: Scott Van Ormer and Don Van Ormer, senior application engineers, Air Power USA
"Bad actor" pumps are those pumps that have trouble with frequent and repetitive failures. In many cases, the source of the problem is an ANSI pump trying valiantly to handle a liquid well beyond the range of its design rating.of 300 degs. F.
Energy cost control is not a one-time event, and it takes more than one tool to make progress. A number of people, both internal and external to an industrial facility, can contribute to effective energy management.
What are the motives for managing energy in todays lean competitive environment? Industrys motives and rewards for managing their energy include plant reliability, speed, flexibility, product quality, and greater capacity to generate revenue.
Reflux condensers have become increasingly important to eliminate condensable organic components from plant off-gas streams and meet environmental requirements. Recognizing this need, HTRI conducted an experimental and analytical study in the late 90s to predict flooding, as well as heat transfer and pressure drop in vertical intube reflux condensers.
For the business of designing process heat exchangers, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are still not practical for everyday use. However, in a research consortium such as HTRI, integrating advanced analysis tools like CFD with industrial-sized experimentation and then applying them to real-world technical problems provides a significant synergistic benefit to the consortium members.
HTRI has conducted extensive testing on a spiral-spiral single-phase flow unit for a wide range of Reynolds (6.5 to 74,000) and Prandtl (3.8 to 2260) numbers. These data were used to evaluate open literature and HTRI methods.
Author: Fernando J. Aguirre/Christopher A. Bennett
The constant-speed approach to AC motors made a lot of sense when energy was cheap and drives technology was in its infancy. With their latest advances, adjustable speed drives can provide one of the best energy efficiency options for a plant.