Reflux condensers have become increasingly important to eliminate condensable organic components from plant off-gas streams and meet environmental requirements. Recognizing this need, HTRI conducted an experimental and analytical study in the late 90s to predict flooding, as well as heat transfer and pressure drop in vertical intube reflux condensers.
For the business of designing process heat exchangers, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are still not practical for everyday use. However, in a research consortium such as HTRI, integrating advanced analysis tools like CFD with industrial-sized experimentation and then applying them to real-world technical problems provides a significant synergistic benefit to the consortium members.
HTRI has conducted extensive testing on a spiral-spiral single-phase flow unit for a wide range of Reynolds (6.5 to 74,000) and Prandtl (3.8 to 2260) numbers. These data were used to evaluate open literature and HTRI methods.
Author: Fernando J. Aguirre/Christopher A. Bennett
The constant-speed approach to AC motors made a lot of sense when energy was cheap and drives technology was in its infancy. With their latest advances, adjustable speed drives can provide one of the best energy efficiency options for a plant.
The Alliance to Save Energy conducts ongoing research of the competitor within, a.k.a. organizational barriers to energy efficiency. The barriers to energy management are rooted in the very complexity of modern organizations. Communications and incentives are the key to overcoming these barriers.
Author: Christopher Russell, Director, Industry Sector
Variable speed drives offer the ability to monitor and reduce energy consumption, foresee line and motor problems and gain fine speed and torque control. Learn how to make your equipment dance with VSDs.
Installing an electric drive on a steam boiler damper results in lower fuel consumption. The reason? The electric drive enables boiler operation with just the right amount of excess air at lower firing rates.
Author: Joshua I. Anderson, Adolfo B. Aparicio and Scott T. Rutkoski
Anywhere compressed air can be eliminated represents an opportunity to reduce system operating expenses. Often, this reduction means fewer compressors must operate to meet the plant's air requirements.
Author: Christopher Schmidt, Mark D'Antonio and Alan MacDougall