2. Loss on drying (LOD) — for free or surface solvent and a major portion of bound solvent (for moisture, the test usually takes place at 90°C for 6 hours);
3. Infrared — for surface moisture, which is a close approximation to free moisture;
4. Radio frequency — for inherent (sometimes), bound and free moisture;
5. Microwave— for total and interstitial moisture (using different wavelengths);
6. Loss on ignition — for total solvent (can be done following LOD to get solvent of crystallization). Often this test is carried out in temperature steps to observe crystallization solvent as well as other volatile components or decomposition;
7. Thermo-gravimetric analysis — for total solvent loss with time (differential thermal analysis is more precise for solvent flux and can be combined with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy to identify chemicals in a multi-component solvent system); and
8. DSC — for heat flow with time (which is especially useful in multi-component solvent systems).
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